Plant Kingdom Mrs. Wetzel Biology
What is a plant • Eukaryotic • Multicellular • Mostly Autotrophs • Cell walls made of cellulose
In order to survive • All plants Need: • Sunlight • Water • Gas exchange • Movement of water and nutrients
Evolution • Most plants started out in the water • They were able to survive on land because of • Adaptations to retain moisture • Cuticle • Seeds
Plant classification • Botanists divide plants into four groups based on three features: • 1. Vascular tissue • 2. Seeds • 3. Flowers
Plant Kingdom: • Bryophytes= mosses & their relatives • Vascular Non seed= Ferns & their relatives • Gymnosperms • Angiosperms
Plant Diversity • Bryophytes- mosses, liverworts, hornworts • Need water for their reproductive cycle • Do not have vascular tissue= must remain short rely on osmosis
Bryophytes: Ecology • Peat Moss- used in gardening, improves the soils ability to retain water
Plant Kingdom: • Bryophytes- Mosses • Non- Seed Vascular – ferns • Gymnosperms- cone bearing • Angiosperms- seed bearing
Non-Seed Vascular PlantsAKA Spore Plants • These are the first plants that have adapted to have specialized tissues used to conduct water. This is called vascular tissue
Non-Seed Vascular PlantsAKA Spore Plants • Vascular tissue is a type of tissue specialized to conduct water- this was a very important adaptation to allow plants to live on land • What are the two types of vascular tissue?
Non- seed Vascular • Vascular tissue is a type of tissue specialized to conduct water- this was a very important adaptation to allow plants to live on land • What are the two types of vascular tissue? • Xylem, Phloem
Non-Seed Vascular Plants • Ferns, Club Mosses, Horsetails
Non-Seed Vascular PlantsAKA Spore Plants • Non-seed vascular plants reproduce using spores which are found on the underside of their fronds. • Fronds is what botanists call the leaves of ferns
Seed Plants • The two groups of seed plants are the: • Gymnosperms • Angiosperms
Seed Plant adaptations • Seed plants have adapted to life outside of water by: • Reproducing with flowers or cones • Pollination • Protecting embryos in a seed
Gymnosperms • Cone Bearing Plants • Gnetophytes Gnetophyta • Cycads= Cycadophyta • Ginkgoes= Ginkgoephyta • Coniferophyta = Conifers
Conifer Ecology • Conifers thrive in habitats with limited water because of several adaptations including long thin leaves (needles) coated with a hard waxy cuticle. • Leaves do not fall in the winter. Older needles are gradually replaced by new ones (evergreen)
Angiosperms • Almost 90% of living plants are angiosperms • Angiosperm means “enclosed seed”
Angiosperms • The fruit is a thick wall of tissue surrounding the seed. The fruit is what has made angiosperms so successful. • By using fruit to attract animals the angiosperms ensure the seeds will be dispersed
Angiosperms • There are two types of angiosperms: • Monocots • Dicots
Angiosperms • Monocots- • Single seeds • Parallel leaf veins • Floral parts in multiples of three • Fibrous roots
Angiosperms • Dicots • Two cotyledons • Leaf veins are branched • Floral parts are in multiples of 4 or 5 • taproots
Seed Distribution • Seeds are distributed in plants just like spores are in fungi • Wind • Animals
Life Spans • Annuals- complete their entire life cycle in one year • Biennial= two years, flowering occurs during the second year • Perennials= many years
Perennial • Buffalo grass of the north American Plains has been growing since the end of the last ice age, or 10,000 years
Structure and Function • Structure & function: What physical characteristics does something have? How do these physical characteristics influence it’s “job”
Structure & Functionin plants Three main parts of plants 1. Roots 2. Stems 3. Leaves
Structure & Function • Roots • The job of a root is to anchor the plant to the soil, absorb minerals, conduct water and nutrients, and store food
Structure & Function • Tap Root- Many dicots have a taproot system consisting of one large vertical root that produces tiny hair like horizontal roots.
Structure & Function • Fibrous Roots- Monocots including grasses have fibrous roots which spread out like a mat just below the soil surface.
Structure & Function • Both types of roots are designed to anchor the plant. Both do so in different ways • A similarity of both root systems is that they absorb most of the water through root hairs. • Roots hairs increase surface area
Structure & Function • Stems- A stem has an alternation of NODES- that point at which leaves are attached, and internodes- the stem segments between the nodes.
Plant Tissue Multicellular VS. Unicellualr the thing that distinguishes multicellular organisms from unicellular organisms is cell specialization. Plants have cells that are specialized for transporting nutrients.
Structure & Function • Veins • Each vein in a plant has two types of tissue; • Xylem- transport water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots • Phloem- transports food made in the leaves to non-photosynthetic parts of the shoot system
Plant Cells • Tracheids & Vessels • Xylem- is composed of two cell types, Trachieds & Vessels- Both cells are dead. Before they die they form rings that can stretch as the plant grows