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Plant Kingdom

Plant Kingdom

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Plant Kingdom

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  1. Plant Kingdom Mrs. Wetzel Biology

  2. What is a plant • Eukaryotic • Multicellular • Mostly Autotrophs • Cell walls made of cellulose

  3. In order to survive • All plants Need: • Sunlight • Water • Gas exchange • Movement of water and nutrients

  4. Evolution • Most plants started out in the water • They were able to survive on land because of • Adaptations to retain moisture • Cuticle • Seeds

  5. Plant classification • Botanists divide plants into four groups based on three features: • 1. Vascular tissue • 2. Seeds • 3. Flowers

  6. Plant Kingdom: • Bryophytes= mosses & their relatives • Vascular Non seed= Ferns & their relatives • Gymnosperms • Angiosperms

  7. Plant Diversity • Bryophytes- mosses, liverworts, hornworts • Need water for their reproductive cycle • Do not have vascular tissue= must remain short rely on osmosis

  8. Bryophytes: mosses/liverworts/hornworts

  9. Bryophytes: Ecology • Peat Moss- used in gardening, improves the soils ability to retain water

  10. Biodiversity/ Symbiosis

  11. Plant Kingdom: • Bryophytes- Mosses • Non- Seed Vascular – ferns • Gymnosperms- cone bearing • Angiosperms- seed bearing

  12. Non-Seed Vascular PlantsAKA Spore Plants • These are the first plants that have adapted to have specialized tissues used to conduct water. This is called vascular tissue

  13. Non-Seed Vascular PlantsAKA Spore Plants • Vascular tissue is a type of tissue specialized to conduct water- this was a very important adaptation to allow plants to live on land • What are the two types of vascular tissue?

  14. Non- seed Vascular • Vascular tissue is a type of tissue specialized to conduct water- this was a very important adaptation to allow plants to live on land • What are the two types of vascular tissue? • Xylem, Phloem

  15. Non-Seed Vascular Plants • Ferns, Club Mosses, Horsetails

  16. Non-Seed Vascular PlantsAKA Spore Plants • Non-seed vascular plants reproduce using spores which are found on the underside of their fronds. • Fronds is what botanists call the leaves of ferns

  17. Seed Plants • The two groups of seed plants are the: • Gymnosperms • Angiosperms

  18. Seed Plant adaptations • Seed plants have adapted to life outside of water by: • Reproducing with flowers or cones • Pollination • Protecting embryos in a seed

  19. Gymnosperms • Cone Bearing Plants • Gnetophytes Gnetophyta • Cycads= Cycadophyta • Ginkgoes= Ginkgoephyta • Coniferophyta = Conifers

  20. Gymnosperms

  21. Conifer Ecology • Conifers thrive in habitats with limited water because of several adaptations including long thin leaves (needles) coated with a hard waxy cuticle. • Leaves do not fall in the winter. Older needles are gradually replaced by new ones (evergreen)

  22. Name some plants:

  23. Angiosperms • Almost 90% of living plants are angiosperms • Angiosperm means “enclosed seed”

  24. Angiosperms • The fruit is a thick wall of tissue surrounding the seed. The fruit is what has made angiosperms so successful. • By using fruit to attract animals the angiosperms ensure the seeds will be dispersed

  25. Angiosperms • There are two types of angiosperms: • Monocots • Dicots

  26. Angiosperms • Monocots- • Single seeds • Parallel leaf veins • Floral parts in multiples of three • Fibrous roots

  27. Monocot leaf

  28. Angiosperms • Dicots • Two cotyledons • Leaf veins are branched • Floral parts are in multiples of 4 or 5 • taproots

  29. Dicot Leaves

  30. Seed Distribution • Seeds are distributed in plants just like spores are in fungi • Wind • Animals

  31. Life Spans • Annuals- complete their entire life cycle in one year • Biennial= two years, flowering occurs during the second year • Perennials= many years

  32. Biennials

  33. Annuals

  34. Perennials

  35. Perennial • Buffalo grass of the north American Plains has been growing since the end of the last ice age, or 10,000 years

  36. Structure and Function • Structure & function: What physical characteristics does something have? How do these physical characteristics influence it’s “job”

  37. Structure & Functionin plants Three main parts of plants 1. Roots 2. Stems 3. Leaves

  38. Structure & Function • Roots • The job of a root is to anchor the plant to the soil, absorb minerals, conduct water and nutrients, and store food

  39. Fibrous / Tap

  40. Structure & Function • Tap Root- Many dicots have a taproot system consisting of one large vertical root that produces tiny hair like horizontal roots.

  41. Structure & Function • Fibrous Roots- Monocots including grasses have fibrous roots which spread out like a mat just below the soil surface.

  42. Structure & Function • Both types of roots are designed to anchor the plant. Both do so in different ways • A similarity of both root systems is that they absorb most of the water through root hairs. • Roots hairs increase surface area

  43. Structure & Function • Stems- A stem has an alternation of NODES- that point at which leaves are attached, and internodes- the stem segments between the nodes.

  44. Xylem / Phloem

  45. Plant Tissue Multicellular VS. Unicellualr the thing that distinguishes multicellular organisms from unicellular organisms is cell specialization. Plants have cells that are specialized for transporting nutrients.

  46. Structure & Function • Veins • Each vein in a plant has two types of tissue; • Xylem- transport water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots • Phloem- transports food made in the leaves to non-photosynthetic parts of the shoot system

  47. Plant Cells • Tracheids & Vessels • Xylem- is composed of two cell types, Trachieds & Vessels- Both cells are dead. Before they die they form rings that can stretch as the plant grows