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The Respiratory System Part A

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The Respiratory System Part A

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  1. The Respiratory System Part A 22

  2. Human Respiratory System Functions: • Works closely with circulatory system, exchanging gases between air and blood: • Takes up oxygen from air and supplies it to blood (for cellular respiration). • Removal and disposal of carbon dioxide from blood (waste product from cellular respiration). Homeostatic Role: • Regulates blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.

  3. Human Respiratory System Components: Nasal cavity, throat (pharynx), larynx (voice box), trachea, bronchi, alveoli, and lungs. Pathway of Inhaled Air: • Nasal cavity • Pharynx (Throat) • Larynx (Voice Box) • Trachea (Windpipe) • Bronchi • Bronchioles • Alveoli (Site of gas exchange) Exhaled air follows reverse pathway.

  4. Human Respiratory System

  5. Pressure Relationships Figure 22.12

  6. Blood Transports Gases Between Lungs and Tissues

  7. Human Respiratory System 1. Nasal cavity: Air enters nostrils, is filtered by hairs, warmed, humidified, and sampled for odors as it flows through a maze of spaces. 2. Pharynx (Throat): Intersection where pathway for air and food cross. Most of the time, the pathway for air is open, except when we swallow. 3. Larynx (Voice Box): Reinforced with cartilage. Contains vocal cords, which allow us to make sounds by voluntarily tensing muscles. • More prominent in males (Adam’s apple).

  8. Human Respiratory System 4. Trachea (Windpipe): Rings of cartilage maintain shape of trachea, to prevent it from closing. Forks into two bronchi. 5. Bronchi (sing. Bronchus): Each bronchus leads into a lung and branches into smaller and smaller bronchioles, resembling an inverted tree. 6. Bronchioles: Fine tubes that allow passage of air. Muscle layer constricts bronchioles. Epithelium of bronchioles is covered with cilia and mucus. • Mucus traps dust and other particles.

  9. Human Respiratory System Alveoli (Sing. Alveolus): Grapelike clusters of tiny air sacs with very thin elastic walls through which gas exchange occurs. • Oxygen in air enters blood in capillaries. • Carbon dioxide in blood enters air in alveoli. There are several million alveoli in the human lungs, with a total surface roughly equivalent to a tennis court. The walls of the alveoli are very delicate. Alveolar macrophages are phagocytic cells that swallow inhaled particles (dust, bacteria, etc.) and digest them.

  10. Respiratory Membrane Figure 22.9.c, d

  11. Respiratory Membrane Figure 22.9b

  12. Inspiration Figure 22.13.1

  13. Exchange of Gases Occurs in Alveoli

  14. Expiration Figure 22.13.2

  15. Lung volume and using spirometer

  16. Lung volume and using spirometer