Student Society for Stem Cell Research February 27, 2008 Virginia Commonwealth University
Reprogramming Skin Cells • Human skin cells have been reprogrammed to act like embryonic stem cells (induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS). • Kazutoshi Takahashi and Shinya Yamanaka (Kyoto University, Japan) published in Cell. • Junying Yu and colleagures (University of Wisconsin-Madison) published in Science.
Reprogramming Skin Cells • What: pluripotent stem cells generated from mature human fibroblasts • How: Uses viruses to insert several copies of three or more pluripotency genes into cells. • Result: An adult cell behaving like an embryonic stem cell. “The induced cells do all the things embryonic stem cells do - its going to completely change the field.” Professor James Thomson, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Kyoto Team • The cells were similar to embryonic stem cells! • Brain and Heart tissue • Heart muscle tissue started beating.
Benefits of Reprogramming • Reduces the risk of tissue rejection. • No embryo is needed. • No more controversy!
Problems with Reprogramming • Viral contamination • Cancer • Not Efficient / Questionable Validity
Possible Answers • Yamanaka, S., et all. (2008). Generation of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Adult Mouse Liver and Stomach Cells. Science. • Genetic Marking System • Cancer? • Less viral contamination • No Transgenes: “This is encouraging to those of us who are seeking a nonviral means of generating iPS cells,” said George Daley of Children’s Hospital Boston
Future of Stem Cell Research • New treatments for diseases • Perfecting the Technique • Still needs to be embryonic stem cell research!
Sources / Resources • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7101834.stm • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18276851?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum • http://blogs.nature.com/reports/theniche/2008/02/adult_cell_types_besides_skin.html