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FC.74 THE INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS (c.1450) & ITS IMPACT PowerPoint Presentation
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FC.74 THE INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS (c.1450) & ITS IMPACT

FC.74 THE INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS (c.1450) & ITS IMPACT

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FC.74 THE INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS (c.1450) & ITS IMPACT

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  1. FC.74 THE INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS (c.1450) & ITS IMPACT Rise of towns & trade in W. Eur Indirect contact with China (FC.64) Black Death hits Western Eur. (FC.71) Chinese rag paper reaches Eur. via Muslim Spain.(FC.46) Chinese wood block printing comes to Eur. Via Muslims (FC.56) High death rate among monks crowded together in monasteries Higher standard of living for survivors who inherit family lands Decline of Church largely from rise of money econ. (FC.72) Secular ideas of Italian Renaissance (FC.76) Fewer book copiers Higher cost of copying books Buy lots of clothes  Rags when they wear out Squeeze press for making paper adapted to pressing type uniformly onto paper Interchangeable metal type Durable & prints every letter evenly on paper Develop oil-based paints for art (FC.77A) Incentive to find cheaper way to copy books Plentiful supply of relatively cheap paper Developed into oil-based inks Adhere to metal type Johannes Gutenburg, a German goldsmith, puts all these elements together to invent the printing press Printing press spreads information: QUICKLY ACCURATELY Wider reading public & increased literacy Church can’t stop spread of controversial new ideas Accelerates spread of accurate data & research Scientific Revolution during the Enlightenment (FC.97) Protestant Reformation ends Cath. Ch’s dominance (FC.84)
  2. FC.75 THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY OF EUROPE (c.1450-1600) Capitalism: Economic system using large sums of money in large scale trade, manufacture,or agriculture & characterized by: Radically alters W. Eur’s polit. & social structure: Black Death especially hurts nobles (FC.71) Middle class replenishes noble ranks by buying titles & offices from king Revival of kings’ power to safeguard peace & order Surviving peasants inherit victims’ property & buy freedom from serfdom Agric., popul., towns & trade revive by 1450 Look for new markets & goods outside Europe New mkts w/more people w/modest amounts of $ Age of Explor.  New mkts & sources of $ (FC.81) Merchants undercut guilds w/cottage indust’s (FC.65) New business techniques to handle larger trade volume: Ger. mining boom More $ in circulation Adoption of Arabic numerals & accounting Deposit banks & credit  Safer to invest Joint stock companiesPeoplew/ moderate $ can also invest Insurance companies  Safer to invest More money invested & circulating rather than being hoarded More jobs More trade Stimulates increased production Private ownership of means of prod. Unlike guilds’ strict control Law of supply & demand, not guild regulations, determines prices Profit motive (vs. Church view of profit as sin) Incentive & innovations Large scale of manuf.  Growing gap b/w workers & owners Money to finance Ital. Renaissance (FC.76) Money to finance nat’l monarchies (FC.79)
  3. FC.75A THE BIRTH OF BANKING Church collects taxes all over W. Europe N. Italian merchants trade all over W. Eur. Storms Pirates Need to send those taxes to Pope in Italy Need to send $ from Italy to do business Risky to carry cash long distances Merchants send agents to other countries who borrow local Church taxes & use them for their business Send letters of credit back to N. Italy worth the amount of Church taxes they had borrowed Home office repays the pope in Italy the Church taxes it had borrowed abroad without either party having to transfer cash across Europe Other people deposit money with wool merchants’ branch offices in one place & take letters of credit to withdraw money in other branch offices so they do not have to carry cash across Europe Merchants charge service fees for transferring funds from one branch office to the next Merchants start to use the money deposited with them for loans & investments Birth of banking Rise of capitalism (FC.75)
  4. FC.76 THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE AND ITS IMPACT (c.1400-1600) Italy located on top old Roman civilization Contact with Muslim & Byzantine civ’s (FC.62) Money for patronizing the arts (FC.75) Relative freedom of expression in Ital. cities Printing press spreads ideas quickly & accurately (FC.74) Italians such as Petrarch & Dante revive Roman & Grk studies in 1300s Thriving urban culture in Northern Italy to support the Renaissance Florentine banking family, Medici, especially patronizes the arts Florence the early center of Italian Renaissance Renaissance largely defined by four new ideas  Transition from medieval to modern civilization Secularism: Belief this world & life are worth studying & living for now, not just as preparation for afterlife Humanism: Belief that humans are not helpless pawns in the divine plan, but capable of their own great accomplishments Individualism: Belief that the individual alone, not just groups of people (e.g., guilds), can accomplish great things on their own Skepticism: Belief in the need to challenge accepted authorities” views Literature (e.g., history & polit. science) promoting more secular view of the world Architectureusing classical forms, e.g, dome Sta Maria del Fiore in Florence & St. Peter’s in Rome Age of Exploration Drawing on ancient Grk. geogr. texts individuals challenge old theories & try to create an accurate world map (FC.81) Protestant Reformation which broke Chr. unity in W. Europe  New patterns of social, political, economic & scientific thought (FC.84) Rev. in Painting  Much more accurate eye for detail (FC.77A) Scientific Revolution during the Enlightenment building on Renaissance research & paving the way for the Industrial Revolution (FC.97)
  5. Two new schools of art in 1800s: Realism (mid 1800s) combining realistic tech’s of Neo-Classicism with contemporary themes of Romanticism (e.g., Courbet) Impressionism (c.1860-86) Focus on light, not form, to capture moment (Monet, Renoir) Post-impressionists (late 1800s) further explore new themes & tech’s (e.g., Van Gogh & Gaugin)  Disgust w/selfish noble values Rococco art (1700s) w/lighter themes to suit nobles’ tastes (e.g., Fragonard, Watteau) ART IN 1800s Art in 1900s reflects disillusionment & rejects old standards: ART IN 1800S Increasingly radical & abstract art (Dadaists, Miro, Leger) Baroque art (1600s) using dramatic motion & common life themes (e.g., Vermeer, Caravaggio, Rembrandt) Surrealists explore the subconscious (Dali, Magritte) Neo-classicism stressing line, form & classical themes (e.g., David) Romanticism stressing color, emotion & contemp. themes (e.g.,Delacroix) Disgust w/ Enl’s cold rationality Cubism Using geom. & mult. perspectives (Picasso) FC.77 AN OVERVIEW OF WESTERN PAINTING (c.1400-1950) Renaissance Art (c.1400-1600): more secular & realistic (shading, perspective, close attention to detail) (FC77A) Ital. Ren(FC76) Ital. Ren(FC76) Prot. Ref. (FC84) Prot. Ref. (FC84) Relig. Wars (1560-1650)Discredit relig. (FC87) Relig. Wars (1560-1650) Desire for stability (FC87) Enlightenment (c.1650-1789) stresses reason & secular themes (FC99) Absolutism (c.1650-1789)  Dominance of noble values (FC95) “Rubber band theory” (FC1) Fr. Rev. radically changes cultural values (FC105) Ind. Rev. (FC117) Ind. Rev. (FC117) Camera Less need for exact ptgs. Paint tin tube  Can Paint on location Expressionists explore psych. Themes (e.g., Munch) Scientif. or geom. approach (e.g., Cezanne & Seurat) WWI (FC127) WWI (FC127) Depression (FC132) Depression (FC132) WWII (FC136) WWII (FC136)
  6. FC.77A THE REVOLUTION IN RENAISSANCE PAINTING (c.1400-1500) Broader range of topics Several advantages: More vibrant & realistic paintings Must carefully plan ptgs Less spontaneous Medieval art using: FRESCOES painted on wet plaster TEMPERA (egg -based paints) Several problems: Need rich patrons w/big walls Ltdmkt of kings, church, & nobles Dry quickly  Can’t afford mistakes Light colors & can’t be mixed Ltd range of colors & shading Adopt use of canvas Cheaper, smaller, & portable Adopt use of oil paints Dry slowly & can be mixed Several advantages: Broader palette of colors Better shading Painters can be more spontaneous Use in studio’s privacy Can attract models Expands mkt beyond rich patrons w/walls Brunelleschi discovers linear perspective (FC.76) Renaissance stresses secular details & proportion(FC.76) Revolution in painting during the Italian Renaissance Affects the Scientific Revolution with its emphasis on details (FC.97)
  7. FC.78 THE NORTHERN RENAISSANCE AND ITS IMPACT (c.1500-1600) Northern Renaissance (c.1500-1600) which differs from Italian Ren. in two ways: More religious fervor than in Italy Scholars study Bible in original Greek & Hebrew Church loses some, but not all influence More money for patronizing the arts Trade & contact with ideas of the Italian Renaissance Each nation’s Ren. is unique (e.g., literature written in vernacular, not Latin) Rise of national monarchies by 1500 (FC.79) Money from colonies after 1550 (FC.81) Towns & trade revive in NW Europe after 1450 (FC.75) Printing press spreads Ren. ideas (FC.74) French invade Italy in 1494 (FC.79) Ren. Learning, rising power of kings vs. popes, religious fervor, & anger at Church abuses Protestant Reformation (FC.84) Opens way for new ideas about money Rise of capitalism (FC.75) Opens way for more secular ideas of the state, including democracy (FC.85.1) Scientific Revolution Breaks Church monopoly on learning Scientific Revolution (FC.97)
  8. FC.78A THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN THEATER Traveling shows w/jugglers, etc. & some skits Tudor drama of Henry VIII’s time with lower class characters and ludicrous, and at times comedic plots Morality plays w/dialogue & sometimes with secular themes Plays known as interludes with increasingly secular and even comedic themes Elizabethan drama which esp. flourishes after 1580 & is characterized by several features: Written in blank verse instead of rhymed verse Religious miracle plays to teach common people about their religion Public performances open to all classes Permanent playhouses w/stages & curtains replace inn courtyards Roman theater becomes increasingly sensational Latin increasingly unintelligible to most people Liturgical drama: acting out scenes during mass so people can understand their religion Classical drama outlawed & forgotten Plots largely influenced &/or based on plays by Seneca & Menander Greek tragic drama and comedy (FC.23) Plautus & Terence carry on Greek New comedy of Menander while Seneca continues Greek tragic forms during Pax Romana (FC.33) Rise of the Chr. Church(FC.37) Rise of the Chr. Church(FC.37) Fall of Roman Emp.(FC.36) Fall of Roman Emp.(FC.36) Rise of towns More secular outlook (FC.64) Italian Ren. Rediscovery of Seneca & other ancient dramas (FC.76) Italian Ren. Rediscovery of Seneca & other ancient dramas (FC.76)
  9. FC. 79 THE RISE OF THE NATION STATE (c.1450-1500) Fr. Kings recover Burgundy & Picardy (1477), Anjou (1481), & Brittany (1491) Mercenary armies & artillery Only king can afford MC bur’s paid w/$ Literate, loyal, & easier to control Strengths of the nation states: Quasi-national churches More royal control Growing revenues from rising money economy Tendency by kings to overspend Chronically in debt Medieval mentality linking religion & politics Wars Weaknesses of the nation states: Continued power & prestige of nobility Tudors triumph & restore order through new govt. institutions Patrimonial (I.e.,hereditary) offices continue Austrian Hapsburgs control imperial elections & Burgundy through marriage Series of European-wide wars to maintain balance of power & showing Europe operating as integrated political system where 1 state’s actions affect everyone Many marriage alliances  Interlocking & rival claims Perm. resident ambassadors to spy on other states England torn by civil war (1455-85) after its defeat in 100 Yrs War Powerful states can expand beyond “national” boundaries Charles VIII of France invades Italy to claim inheritance (1494) Marriage alliance of Austria & Spain Hapsburg Emp. of Charles V controlling American colonies & half of W. Europe Seriously weakens nobles & Church Towns & Mid. Class ally with kings Spain unified when Moors are driven from Granada in 1492 1469- Ferdinand of Aragon marries Isabella of Castile to unite their kgd’s Rise of nation-states in W. Eur. by 1500 Black Death political, economic, & social turmoil (c.1350-1450) (FC.71) France torn by feudal separatism, civil strife, & 100 Years War (FC.73) Feudal strife & Popes’ struggle vs. emperors fragment Ger. (FC.70) Kings heavily in debt Borrow $ & sell offices & titles
  10. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe W. Europe the center of a world economy Money & resources for the Industrial Revolution (FC.111) W. Eur. & Eur. derived cultures control 85% globe by 1900 (FC.122)
  11. FC.4 THE BIRTH OF AGRICULTURE & ITS EFFECTS Agr develops first in Fertile Crescent because: Permanent villages w/stable grain supplies which allow: WHY AGR. & CIV. 1ST DEVELOP IN EURASIA (ESP.NEAR EAST) WHY AGR. & CIV. 1ST DEVELOP IN EURASIA (ESP.NEAR EAST) Eurasia‘s E-W axis Plants share same climate, & seasonal variations of sunlight Domestic crops & intensive agric. can spread rapidly from one center Hot dry summers Big seeds for fast growth No woody stems Big nutritious grains & easy harvest It has many self pollinating cereals Don’t breed w/other plants Don’t lose valued recessive traits Cities & civiliz. can develop & spread rapidly from 1 center (FC.6) Better hunting & gathering tech., esp sickles & baskets (FC.2) Warmer, wetter climate (c,10,000 BCE) Wild grains spread in mid East Time to watch seeds grow discovery of agric. (c.8000 B.C.E.) Women don’t carry kids so far  Less need to control pop. growth Young children can eat grains Women wean children earlier Shorter gaps b/w pregnancies Rising pop Need more food, but won’t abandon easier H&G lifestyle  Casual agriculture mixed with hunting & gathering Population growth Heavier reliance on agr. Depletes H&G resources Need for more food Eventually settle down to full-time agric. with important results: Dev. new agricultural techniques: 2-field system, crop rotation)popul.  Less coop. & sharing Priv. prop. Soc. classes & more conflict Start of status gap b/w genders Rise of hydraulic civ. in MesopotamiaMore priv. prop.  More conflict & sep. of gender roles (FC.6)
  12. FC.5 ANIMAL DOMESTICATION AND ITS EFFECTS Better hunting & gathering  More settled lifestyle (FC.2) Abiltiy to keep & domesticate animals that are: Herbivourous & fast growing  Need less food Live in herds w/strict soc. hierarchy that humans can take over Tame & willing to breed in captivity Most animals suitable for domestication were found exclusively in Eurasia & esp. the Fertile Crescent Sheep & goats (c.8000 B.C.E.) that are easily tamed  Meat & milk for food Can digest cellulose Make hilly land useful Wool for clothing Pigs (c.7000 B.C.E.) that scavenge : Reduce waste Need less supervision Cheap to keep Cows (c.6500 B.C.E.) - hard to tame but can: Digest cellulose Pull plows Farm more land Give meat, milk & hides Horses (c.3000 B.C.E.) when tamed & bred up in size  New source of energy Faster comm’s Bigger emp’s More mobile armies Chronic clashes throughout history b/w nomads grazing their herds in dry grasslands & settled farmers in well watered areas (FC.9) Herd animals’ diseases often infect humans Eurasian civ’s adapt Advantage vs. cultures not previously exposed (FC.9)
  13. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) Geographic unity of W. Europe?
  14. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe’s climates & resources? W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product North Sea Baltic Sea Eng. Channel Alps Pyrenees
  15. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Pieter Brueghel’s “Hunters in the Snow” suggests much colder winters in the Low Countries during the 1500s than Amsterdam’s current average daily range in January (31º-40ºF). Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe
  16. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Political unity of Western Europe? Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe
  17. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Control of important resources? Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product
  18. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Their relationship to one another?
  19. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product
  20. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product
  21. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product
  22. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product
  23. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product
  24. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product
  25. Outside of Europe, larger empires controlled all or most of their respective cultural/ethnic regions both politically and economically
  26. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Class that benefits and how?
  27. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power? Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states
  28. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Impact on new technology & ideas? Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74)
  29. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Economic system that benefits & its impact on new tech? Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75)
  30. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: Defensive developments? More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocenvoyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth
  31. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications Impact on Eur’s Balance of Power? More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocenvoyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth
  32. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocenvoyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth
  33. The early response to the destructive power of gunpowder was to strengthen existing medieval fortifications such as Castello Nuovo in Naples. Along with bolstering the old towers, a low wall level with the moat was erected as a stable firing platform for artillery.
  34. In the late 1400s, the Italians developed angled bastions that provided flanking fire that covered the entire face of the intervening wall. Artillery posted on the side of the bastions was also relatively safe from direct fire of the besiegers’ guns. The wide platforms at the tops of the bastions allowed defenders to post additional artillery. Fortifications were also built at a sloping angle to minimize damage from enemy artillery, since it made it harder to hit the walls at a direct perpendicular angle.
  35. A siege was largely a race against time, with the attackers needing to take a fortress before combat, desertion, and especially disease had decimated their ranks, their supplies ran out, and/or an army showed up to relieve the defenders. Therefore, over time, defenders added different types of fortifications in front of the moat to further delay the besiegers’ progress and ensure their own survival.
  36. Neuf Brisach near France’s frontier with Switzerland, was a model example of town fortifications designed in the late 1600s by the great French military engineer, Vauban. As the picture below shows, it still maintains those fortifications.
  37. Model of the fortifications built around Perpignan, France
  38. Venice’s fortress at Rethymno on Crete’s north coast shows how European fortifications spread into the Eastern Mediterranean in the ongoing wars against the Ottoman Turks.
  39. The Dutch fortress of s’Hertengobosch, showing how waterways could be incorporated into fortress defenses.
  40. Imperial troops storm a breach in the walls of Parma in 1521. Defenders put up an especially ferocious fight at this stage of a siege, because if the city fell, the attackers, usually brutal mercenaries who had just endured the hardships of an extended siege, were typically allowed three days of murder, rape, and pillage. This often encouraged a negotiated surrender by towns to avoid such a fate. Conversely, the attackers knew the defenders would be especially fierce in defending their town and were often hard to induce to make the final assault.
  41. A map showing the spread of the heavy fortifications developed to withstand the destructive force of the new artillery during the Renaissance, thus protecting smaller European states and maintaining the balance of power by slowing the pace of warfare.
  42. Such forts, when built overseas, helped small European forces hold large colonial empires against native forces unfamiliar with European warfare and fortifications.
  43. Such forts, when built overseas, helped small European forces hold large colonial empires against native forces unfamiliar with European warfare and fortifications. Left and Below: Fort Niagara in upstate New York
  44. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocenvoyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth New military techniques?
  45. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech.  Impact? Large bulky ships for ocenvoyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth
  46. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocenvoyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth
  47. Maurice of Nassau, whose adoption of the Roman drill & march helped save the Dutch cause & transform European armies into the most effective fighting forces on the planet
  48. The problem Maurice solved was how to get a faster rate of fire despite the long time it took to load the matchlock musket. The solution, based on the ancient Romans, was two-fold. First, Maurice adapted the Roman counter-march (illustrated below), whereby fresh troops could move up through gaps in the line to replace their comrades in front. The troops in back could now reload and be ready to fire by the time it was their turn to fire again. By constantly rotating his musketeers in this manner, Maurice’s troops could maintain a rate of fire three times that of their opponents.
  49. Second, Maurice adopted the Roman drill and march. By constantly drilling his troops in the countermarch and reloading their muskets, they could function like virtual automatons on the battlefield. This had a second, possibly more significant effect. The constant rhythm and cadence of the drill and march stimulated a pleasure center in the inner ear that likes a beat. This, in turn, created a psychological bond between men in the ranks. This proved to be a powerful glue holding together European armies, such as Frederick William I‘s Prussian army seen here, and gave them a decisive edge over non-Western armies in the coming centuries.
  50. There is evidence of parallel development of the drill and march in China as far back as 500 B.C.E., the first drill instructor being none other than Sun Tzu, the author of "The Art of War.” Working for King Helu of Wu, he supposedly demonstrated the effectiveness of his methods by training a contingent of one hundred-eighty palace women in close order drill with pole arms. Sun Tzu organized them into two units, with the king's two favorite concubines as leaders and gave them basic instructions on moving right, left, about face, etc. When the women did not follow his orders, and laughed instead, he beheaded their unit leaders, which adjusted their attitude appropriately. Having trained them to a peak of efficiency Sun Tzu presented them to the king saying they were properly drilled and disciplined and ready to go through fire and water for him. Although depressed by losing his two favorite concubines, Helu retained the services of Sun Tzu, who trained Wu’s armies and led them to victory over its arch rival, Chu. However, the Chinese did not institutionalize the drill and march like the Romans did, since they came to rely more on cavalry to meet the nomads from the North, and horses don’t march well.
  51. In 1757, the British general, Robert Clive, showed it wasn’t just Europeans who could used these techniques. Leading a small army consisting mostly of European trained and equipped Indian troops, he decisively defeated an Indian army twelve times its size at Plassey, showing the effectiveness of the European drill and march. Even today, when close order marching on the battlefield would be suicidal, it still is extensively used in basic training to forge today’s modern armies.
  52. In the spirit of the Renaissance, rulers also tried to emulate the Roman legions of antiquity by such measures as laying camps out in an organized grid. Francis I of France even tried to raise 7 regional legions each with 6,000 conscripts.
  53. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocenvoyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth Navies?
  54. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth
  55. The rough waters of the Atlantic forced European explorers to build bulkier ships to withstand the storms of the open seas. Such ships, being broader in the beam, allowed Europeans to load and fire guns from the broadside without the recoil capsizing the ship. This gave European navies an overwhelming advantage against Arab fleets in the Indian Ocean, not to mention the mere canoes they might run up against in the Americas.
  56. The Santissima Trinidad, a Spanish warship (c. 1800), weighed 1400 tons and had a 2’ thick hull that stood as high as a five story building. It also had four gun decks, and 144 guns, 30 of which could hurl a 32lb. cannon ball through a 3’ hull at a range of 1.5 miles. Such a ship required 5,000 trees to build, with each tree yielding 800 board feet.
  57. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth Impact of these military developments on political pluralism in Europe?
  58. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth
  59. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth
  60. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth
  61. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth
  62. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth
  63. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth
  64. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth
  65. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth
  66. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) What did this allow Eur’s to do?
  67. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81)
  68. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81)
  69. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81)
  70. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81)
  71. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81)
  72. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81)
  73. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81)
  74. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81)
  75. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe
  76. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe
  77. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe
  78. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe
  79. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe
  80. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states  No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe
  81. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe
  82. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe W. Europe the center of a world economy
  83. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe W. Europe the center of a world economy Money & resources to do what?
  84. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe W. Europe the center of a world economy Money & resources for the Industrial Revolution (FC.111)
  85. FC.80 GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS IN THE RISE OF W. EUROPE (c.1500-1900) W. Europe broken up by mountains & forests W. Europe has diverse climates & resources Many indep.states No 1 ruler can control all Europe Kings can’t control all of one resource or product Rise of a free middle class that can promote new ideas & tech or move to a state that will let them Balance of power shifts away from repressive toward tolerant states Cannot control the spread of the printing press or the ideas it promotes (FC.74) Rise of capitalist econ. & competitive spirit that encourages new tech’s (FC.75) W. Eur. develops new military technologies & techniques: More sophisticated fortifications that resist artillery & slow down invading armies Large bulky ships for ocean voyages Excellent gun platforms Very powerful navies Adapts newly redisc. Roman drill & march to new firearms tech. Most powerful armies on earth W. Eur. able to conquer large colonial emp’s w/small but well armed & disciplined armies & navies (FC.81) Influx of money to different countries in W. Europe W. Europe the center of a world economy Money & resources for the Industrial Revolution (FC.111) W. Eur. & Eur. derived cultures control 85% globe by 1900 (FC.122)