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Michael. Matthew. Do you know anyone that is autistic? How would you define Autism?. Autism. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autism are both general terms for a group of complex disorders of brain development.

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  1. Michael Matthew

  2. Do you know anyone that is autistic? How would you define Autism?

  3. Autism • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autism are both general terms for a group of complex disorders of brain development. • ASD can be associated with intellectual disability, difficulties in motor coordination and attention and physical health issues such as sleep and gastrointestinal disturbances. Some people with ASD excel in visual skills, music, math and art. • Autism is a physical condition linked to abnormal biology and chemistry in the brain. • It affects the brain’s normal development of social & communication skills. • Usually appears in a child’s first 3 years of life. (US National Library of Medicine)

  4. Random facts • Autism affects boys 3 - 4 times more often than girls • In December 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued their ADDM autism prevalence report. The report concluded that the prevalence of autism had risen to 1 in every 110 births in the United States and almost 1 in 70 boys. • Currently, the Autism Society estimates that the lifetime cost of caring for a child with autism ranges from $3.5 million to $5 million, and that the United States is facing almost $90 billion annually in costs for autism (this figure includes research, insurance costs and non-covered expenses, Medicaid waivers for autism, educational spending, housing, transportation, employment, in addition to related therapeutic services and caregiver costs). (Autism Society)

  5. There are 5 different types of PDD (Pervasive Developmental Disorder): • Classic Autism (Autistic Disorder) • Rett’s Disorder • Childhood Disintegrative Disorder • Asperger’s Disorder • PDDNOS (Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) (http://www.asapprogram.org/pdd.html)

  6. Classic Autism (Autistic Disorder) • Onset is in infancy or early childhood and is a lifelong developmental disability. • More prevalent in boys than girls • Children with the Autistic Disorder have a moderate to severe range of communication, socialization, behavior problems, and extreme reactions to sensory experiences. • The major characteristics displayed by children with autism include: • the impairment in socialization skills • impairments in communication skills • the presence of repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. (http://www.asapprogram.org/pdd.html#Autistic)

  7. Rett’s Disorder • Also known as Rett’s Syndrome • Primarily diagnosed in females & usually appears around 18 months • Regression or loss of previously acquired abilities is mostly prevalent in gross motor skills followed by deterioration in receptive and expressive language development, reasoning, and hand use • Important cue of diagnosis: • presence of meaningless repetitive motor patterns and mannerisms such as hand-wringing or hand-washing. (http://www.asapprogram.org/pdd.html#Autistic)

  8. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder • Rare disorder • Appears around age 2 • Characterized by: • apparent regression in psychomotor development • loss of bowl and bladder control • Loss of gross motor and social skills • Loss of receptive and expressive language skills (http://www.asapprogram.org/pdd.html#Autistic)

  9. Asperger’s Disorder • Also known as "high functioning autism” • Has a later onset than Autistic Disorder, and is often recognized later • A person with Asperger's possesses an average to above average intelligence. • Some characteristics of Asperger’s Disorder are: • impairment in social interaction • difficulty with social relationships • difficulty with social-emotional reciprocity • difficulty spontaneously seeking shared enjoyments and achievements • poor coordination and poor concentration (http://www.asapprogram.org/pdd.html#Autistic)

  10. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS) • Neurological disorder with an unidentified cause or causes • One major difference is that children with PDDNOS are generally able to show extreme emotions of joy, fear, or anger, but will have difficulty displaying the subtle facial emotional expressions; however, it is not unusual that a child with PDDNOS displays flattened or inappropriate emotional expressions • According to the DSM-IV, this category should be used "when there is a severe and pervasive impairment in the development of social interaction or verbal and nonverbal communication skills, or when stereotyped behavior, interests, and activities are present, but the criteria are not met for a specific Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Schizophrenia, Schizotypal Personality Disorder, or Avoidant Personality Disorder" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, pp. 77-78) (http://www.asapprogram.org/pdd.html#Autistic)

  11. Causes • Not known, but there are several possible factors: • Heredity • Infections birthing problems • Neurological disorder • Poor immune system • Abnormalities in the brain

  12. Symptoms: • Arrives by age 3 Difficulty with… • Communication • Non-verbal communication • Social interaction • Adjusting to changes • Plays with unusual toys and objects

  13. Signs • Your child does not… • Babble or coo 12 months • No gestures • Now words by 16 months • Not speaking 2 word phrases by 24 months • Loss of any language or social skills • 1 in 91 have autism

  14. Statistics • 1 in 91 have autism • Was 1 in every 10,000 had autism • More technology to diagnose diseases

  15. Luke Benward • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZzBDYlrrQUc

  16. Coping • As a parent, it may be difficult to handle outbursts from the child, or communication issues. • Be consistent • Takes time and patience • Extended family are often willing to help • Autism support groups

  17. Treatments • No cure, but treatments • Treatment plans greatly improve outlook for child • Focused on the needs of child, specifically (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002494/)

  18. Kinds of Treatment • Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) • Occupational Therapy • Speech Therapy • Physical Therapy • Medications

  19. Applied Behavior Analysis • What is it? • An approach to understanding behavior and its effects by the environment • It focuses on principles of behavior and how it works and how learning takes place • Skills that are learned: • Looking • Listening • Imitating • Reading • Conversing http://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism/treatment/applied-behavior-analysis-aba

  20. Occupational Therapy • Main goal: • Providing skills for independent living • Physical activities: • Coordination and body awareness • Play activities: • Communication and interaction • Developmental activities: • Brushing teeth and combing hair • Adaptive strategies: • Coping with various transitions (http://www.webmd.com/brain/autism/benefits-of-occupational-therapy-for-autism?page=2)

  21. Speech Therapy • Almost everyonewithAutismneeds speech therapy • Speech therapists asses the best way to improve communication which in turnsenhances the quality of life of thatperson. • Techniques: • Signing or typing • Electronictalkers • Picturesboardswithwords • Goals (http://www.webmd.com/brain/autism/benefits-speech-therapy-autism?page=2)

  22. Physical Therapy • For children who may need to help in: • Developing age-appropriate motor skills • Have low muscle tone • Problems with physical systems • Examples: • Respiratory control • Coordination • Posture • Misalignments in musculoskeletal system • Chest wall deformities • Foot/ankle misalignments • Fitness programs http://www.everydayhealth.com/autism/physical-therapy.aspx

  23. Medications • No medications can cure • Types of drugs: • Antidepressants • Antipsychotic • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s) • Seizure medications • Inattention/Hyperactivity - Ritalin http://www.mychildwithoutlimits.org/?page=autism-medicationhttp://www.mayoclinic.com/health/autism/DS00348/DSECTION=alternative-medicine

  24. You As a Teacher Can…  As a teacher what are some ways you would change your classroom to fit the needs of a child with Autism?

  25. Use Task-Analysis- be specific and keep tasks in sequential order • Give fewer choices- the more choices the more confused the student can get • Teach specific social rules in the classroom- turn taking & social distance • Provide a very clear daily structure • Avoid overstimulation- minimize distractors • Don’t take aggressive behavior personally • Explore word-processing and computer based learning (http://teaching.monster.com)

  26. Successful People • Temple Grandin: professor and author • Steven Shore: speaker, author and advocate • Kim Miller: artist • Jason McElwain: basketball player • Matt Savage: jazz musician • Derek Paravicini: musician • Richard Wawro: artist • Luke Benward, american teen actor and singer

  27. Interview with mom, Julie Batzler. Q: What can you tell us about Michael and Matthew? A: Michael: • 6 years old • Michael was diagnosed at age 2 with PDDNOS • Then was diagnosed with Asperger’s Disorder • Michael has trouble with socializing and is very shy Matthew: • 4 years old • Diagnosed with PDDNOS at 18 months • Then diagnosed with Autistic Disorder • Has a language delay of about 1 & ½ years

  28. Q: What are some difficulties that you struggle with the boys on a regular basis? A: “It is very difficult for me to do things with the boys that “normal” kids get to do. We took them to the Easter egg hunt at Friess Lake this past weekend, and it was terrible. Matthew was very impatient and he had a meltdown and threw his basket at the Easter bunny. Then when it was time to actually do the Easter egg hunt, he didn’t want to.” A: “I also always seem to be in “plan B mode” because I never know what to expect from either of them. I always have a “plan A” which I would love to accomplish, but it just doesn’t happen. I want to be proactive with the day, but I often feel like I am always reactive.”

  29. Q: What are some positives and negatives to having children with autism? A: “Michael trusts the world, and because of that he is very vulnerable. Lately we have had problems with him being bullied on the bus. He trusts everyone because he doesn’t know better, and then he ends up in these situations. He also is very obsessive when it comes to clothing. Everything needs to be zipped up, buttoned up, and on perfect. He also likes to wear his clothes tight, and often wears things that are too small for him. But on a positive note, he is very honest, open hearted, and loving; he loves giving and receiving hugs and affection.”

  30. A: “Matthew has a very difficult time with transitions and doesn’t do well with change. He often has temper tantrums that can be a mild temper tantrum, to a a full blown melt down, and those aren’t pretty as you know! Matthew also often does things by himself. He will come and say hi to you, but then he’ll show no interest in more than that and often walks away. He doesn’t like doing things with others unless it focuses on him, like swinging or playing chase. On a more positive note, Matthew is also very curious and loving. He is always looking at different things outside, investigating, trying to discover new things.”

  31. Q: What are some misconceptions that you would like to clear up about children with autism? A: “I would like to clear up the idea that some people have that says the kids are “the naughty kids”. Some are so quick to call them “the naughty kids,” but what they don’t realize is that most children have trouble communicating verbally with words, so the only other way they know how to get their point across is to do so with actions. Then when people go up to them, or like Matthew for instance, if you go up in his face and say “its okay buddy! Come on lets go play, come on,” it will just make him even more angry. You can’t talk him through it, you just simply have to say “I know its hard, it will be okay,” then walk away and let him cool down on his own.”

  32. Q: What are your future goals in the special education program and the future? A: I want to help children with autism and their families in any way that I can. I feel like I am at an advantage because I live it and I study it. I know how it feels to have it seem like there is no way to get help or anything of that sort, so I want to be that help. I also would like to become a part of the autism council and fight for rights for these kids. Some of the services are ridiculous, you either get 32 hours of service every day, or you get nothing. Not every child needs 32 hours, but I know that Michael and Matthew would both benefit from 10 hours, but 32 hours of therapy and school would just push kids over the edge. I also want to see my boys grow up healthy and happy of course. They mean the world and so much more to me, so this is very important to me, because it is their life, and they are my life.”

  33. sources • Board, A.D.A.M. Editorial. "Causes, Incidence, and Risk Factors." Autism. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 18 Nov. 0000. Web. 25 Mar. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002494/>. • "About Autism." Autism Society -. Web. 25 Mar. 2012. <http://www.autism-society.org/about-autism/>. • http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/autism/ • https://www.birthdefects.org/ • http://www.tacanow.org/family-resources/latest-autism-statistics-2/

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