Let’s go and get some colonies! Imperialism
Describe at least motives for imperialism. Describe three types of imperialism. Which nations became imperial powers? Which nations were controlled by imperial powers? How did imperial powers justify their control over foreign nations? By the end of the day, you will be able to
Imperialism: The policy by a stronger nation to attempt to create an empire by dominating weaker nations economically, politically, culturally or militarily. Definition
COLONIALISM SPEEDS UP Age of Exploration ↓ Europeans raced for overseas colonies ↓ Growth of European commerce andtrade worldwide ↓ Commercial Revolution
1500s-1700s England, France, Holland, Portugal, and Spain Wars over colonies “OLD” IMPERIALISM
Europeans were preoccupied with happenings on the European continent and in the existing European colonies. American Revolution French Revolution Napoleonic Wars Latin American Wars for Independence Growth of Nationalism Industrial Revolution INTERLUDE – LATE 1700s-LATE 1800s
Beginning circa 1875 Renewed race for colonies Spurred by needs created by the Industrial Revolution New markets for finished goods New sources of raw materials Nationalism Colonies = economic and political power Social Darwinism = racist justification “NEW” IMPERIALISM
David Livingstone Mapping the “Dark Continent” Exploration
Write down the definition of Imperialism. Create a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting Old Imperialism and New Imperialism. Finally, do you think the concept was romanticized by some people? Task
The steam engine Better transportation Increased exploration Improvements in communication Technological Advances
A desire to “civilize” non-Europeans also spurred the development of imperialism. • Charles Darwin, “The Origins of the Species” • The idea of the evolution and survival of the fittest. • Turned into Social Darwinism Ideological motives
First self-powered machine gun The Maxim Gun One English writer put it this way: “Whatever happens, we have gotthe Maxim gun, and they have not.”
19th century political change Allegiance to one’s country rather than one’s monarch Role of the Common people Unification movements Militarism Nationalism
Other nations emerged in the mid-1800s as the result of political and economic changes in Europe and beyond.
Industrialized nations sought: • Raw materials • Natural resources • A cheap labor supply • New marketplaces for manufactured goods. Economic Motives
Economic Motives Markets for finished goods Products of British Industrial Revolution sold in China and India Sources of raw materials Egypt – cotton Malaya – rubber and tin Middle East – oil Capital investments Profits from Industrial Revolution invested in mines, railroads, etc., in unindustrialized areas
Social Darwinism Interpreted Darwin’s evolutionary theory in terms of powerful nations “Only the strong survive” Powerful nations able to develop areas and resources being “wasted” by native peoples Racism Increased feelings of white superiority Increased feelings of Japanese superiority Eugenics developed as a branch of science JUSTIFICATIONS
† Conversion to Christianity End-of-the-century crusading spirit Missionaries in Africa, Asia, Hawaii, etc. RELIGIOUS MOTIVES
Rudyard Kipling, author of The Jungle Book, was an Anglo-Indian – an Englishman who was born in India. His ideas about imperialism can be seen in a poem he wrote in 1889, called The White Man’s Burden:
Turn to the White Man’s Burden page in your passport and read the entry together. Answer the following questions The White Man’s Burden
SOCIAL MOTIVES Surplus population Japanese in Korea Italians in Africa “White Man’s Burden” Rudyard Kipling’s poetry and prose Whites morally obligated to bring the “blessings of civilization” to “backward” peoples Cecil Rhodes – imperialism is “philanthropy—plus five percent”
The White Man’s Burden was the idea that Europeans had to conquer the rest of the world, to spread the benefits of Western Civilization. This was supposed to help them…
Appeared on advertisements and on children’s books during that time period.
Mahatma Gandhi was born in India around the same time as Rudyard Kipling. Gandhi lived in India and Africa and studied law in England, but he had different ideas about imperialism. Reporter: “What do you think about Western Civilization?” Gandhi: “I think it would be a good idea!” Gandhi led India to independence from England through nonviolent resistance.
Gandhi and others thought that Europeans were just talking about helping the people they conquered. The West wasn’t really civilized. It was brutally conquering the entire world and taking foreign countries’ natural resources.
POLITICAL MOTIVES Nationalism – national pride “The sun never sets on the British empire.” Large empires increased national pride French acquisitions in Africa and Asia followed France’s defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
Berlin Conference: established rules on how the colonies would behave in regards to Africa Africa
Bases • British naval bases • Aden, Alexandria, Cyprus, Hong Kong, Singapore • Manpower • British – Indian sepoys • French – north African troops MILITARY MOTIVES
By 1779, the British East India Company was importing opium to China. Within a generation, opium addiction in China became widespread. Opium
China and Britain Clash over Opium In 1839, a Chinese official demanded that the opium trade in Guangzhou stop. The British refused and war ensued.