Sugars in food: AKA Sucrose/sucralose Table sugar, raw sugar, turbinado sugar Granulated cane sugar Confectioner’s or powdered sugar Brown sugar Invert sugar Maple syrup Polydextrose Maltose Maltodextrin Molasses Honey Date sugar Corn sweeteners Corn syrup/HFCS Fruit sugar (fructose) Levulose Fruit juice concentrate Concentrated fruit juice sweetener Glucose dextrose
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KVsgXPt564Q&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EEbRxTOyGf0 http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/OnCall/story?id=4439943&page=1
High Fructose Corn Syrup • What is it? • Sweetener made from corn • Metabolized in body similar to sugar? • FDA: “Generally recognized as safe.” • Still controversial • Does it promote obesity? • Enhances flavor, softens texture & protects freshness • Being renamed “Corn Sugar”
Artificial Sweeteners • The good & the bad. • Not metabolized the same way as sugar • Saves calories • But… • People may end up consuming more
Artificial Sweeteners • Saccharin: • AKA: Sweet & Low • One of the first substitutes approved by FDA • Aspartame: • AKA: Nutrasweet or Equal • Approved by FDA in 1981 • Stevia: • South American shrub
Artificial Sweeteners continued • Sucralose: • AKA: Splenda • 600 times sweeter than sugar • Approved by FDA in 1998 • Neotame: • 7,000 times sweeter than sugar • FDA preliminary reports “safe”
Activity So.. How much sugar is actually in some common products? Conversion: 4 grams = 1 teaspoon
New York City Campaign http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O8g3e22ycIw Sodas are the #1 source of added sugar in the American diet!
Soda & Calories • In General: • 12 oz Pepsi – 150 calories • 32 oz Pepsi – 400 calories • 64 oz Pepsi – 800 calories http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=soda&view=detail&id=7EE0C53857D87A5ECAE95301D2FA6705F2EAF2A1&first=1&FORM=IDFRIR
Soda & Obesity – connection? • Harvard Study: • Obesity increases significantly with each daily serving of sugar-sweetened soft drink. • Soft drinks currently are the leading source of added sugar in the daily diet. • “It is not uncommon for teenagers to receive 500 to 1000 calories per day from sugar-sweetened drinks.” (David Ludwig, coauthor) • (Gortmaker, S., & Ludwig, D., (2001) Harvard School of Public Health)
Soda & Obesity continued Overall, it is easy to over-consume calories. Soda & HFCS Are diet sodas healthier?
Soda & Bones • Girls who are active: • 5x more likely to have bone fractures with soda consumption. • Theory of why: • Phosphoric acid may affect calcium metabolism and bone mass. • (Wyshak, G., (2000), Harvard School of Public Health)
To Tax or Not to Tax? Would taxing soft drinks help? Pros … Thoughts?
Beverages • Six levels of beverages • Water • Unsweetened tea / coffee • Low-Fat, Skim Milk and Soy • Noncalorically sweetened • Caloric with some nutrients • Calorically sweetened