Download
bacterial genetics ch18 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Bacterial Genetics (Ch18) PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Bacterial Genetics (Ch18)

Bacterial Genetics (Ch18)

215 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Bacterial Genetics (Ch18)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Bacterial Genetics (Ch18) Genetic diversity caused by Rapid reproduction Mutation Recombination Bacteria • One of the simplest genetic model systems to study the mechanisms of molecular genetics Escherichia coli(E. coli) • Intestinal flora • “lab rat” of molecular biology

  2. Replication of bacterial genome • One circular DNA genome • Single origin of replication (Ori) • Bidirectional DNA replication • May have plasmids • smaller circular DNA molecules • Autonomously replicated (contain ori) • Bacteria divide by binary fission • asexual reproduction • Progeny are genetically identical to parent (clones)

  3. Bacterial DNA replication Replication fork LE 18-14 Origin of replication Both genome & plasmid replicate in this manner Termination of replication

  4. Bacterial DNA Mutation Caused spontaneously (mistakes in DNA synthesis) • Physicochemical forces (UV, X rays, chemical mutagens, etc.) • Since reproduction is quick e.g.doubling time=20 min • New mutations spread quickly

  5. Calculation of incidence of mutations If doubling time= 20 min, then 23cells/hr Over 12 hr, 236 cells (~1010)produced from a single cell If spontaneous mutation rate = 1 x 10-7 / gene, then in 12 hr (day) (1010) (10-7)= 103 mutations/gene/day If bacteria have ~4000 genes then (4x103genes)(103)= 4 x 109 mutations/day

  6. Take home message: bacterial mutations rare per gene But due to rapid cell division, become frequent Major contribution to genetic diversity and ability to adapt

  7. Another source of bacterial genetic diversity:Genetic Recombination • Three processes bring bacterial DNA from different individuals together: • Transduction • Transformation • Conjugation

  8. Transduction • Bacteriophages (bacterial viruses) transfer bacterial genes from one host cell to another

  9. Phage DNA A+ B+ LE 18-16 A+ B+ Donor cell A+ Crossing over A+ A- B– Recipient cell A+ B– Recombinant cell

  10. Transformation • Alteration of a bacterial cell’s genotype and phenotype • by the uptake of naked, foreign DNA from the surrounding environment • For example, harmless Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria can be transformed to pneumonia-causing cells • Uptake of ampicillin resistant/ GFP-carrying plasmid (done in lab) (pGLO)

  11. Conjugation • Direct transfer of DNA between live bacterial cells that are temporarily joined • Transfer one-way: • “Male” donates DNA • “Female” receives DNA

  12. “Maleness,” • Contains F (fertility) genes on plasmid or in genome • Encode sex pilus • Forms passage way for DNA from donor to recipient

  13. LE 18-17 Sex pilus 5 µm

  14. Donor cells containing the F plasmid: F+ • Recipient cells: F- • Cells with F factor integrated into genome: Hfr cell (high frequency of recombination) • Hfr cells • Transfer some genomic DNA to recipient cell

  15. F plasmid Bacterial chromosome F+cell F+ cell Mating bridge LE 18-18_4 F– cell F+ cell Bacterial chromosome Conjugation and transfer of F plasmid from and F+ donor to an F– recipient Formation of Hfr (high frequency of recombination) cell Hfr cell F+ cell F factor Hfr cell F– cell Temporary partial diploid Recombinant F– bacterium Conjugation and transfer of part of the bacterial chromosome from an Hfr donor to an F– recipient, resulting in recombiination

  16. Questions???