Unit 3: Human Geography Urbanization – local, national, and global contexts
Different Kinds of Urban Places MANUFACTURING CITIES • Created as people began to live near factories where they could find jobs producing and distributing manufactured goods. Sarnia, Ontario • Late 1800s, oil processing facilities • WWII, petrochemical industry
Different Kinds of Urban Places TRANSPORTATION HUBS • Cities develop because their site and situation provides them with important transportation functions • Site: characteristics of the land on which a city is built • Situation: the relationship between a city’s location and the area surrounding it Thunder Bay, Ontario • Canadian Shield on a flat area bordering the western shores of Lake Superior • Trade site • Situation is good because bulk materials (grain, potash, etc.) can be transported from train, to ship.
Different Kinds of Urban Places TOURIST CITIES • Develop as a result of a physical or human feature that people are attracted to see or experience • Jobs are basic jobs because the money that supports the local economy comes from outside the community Banff, Alberta • Area is home to hot springs, scenery, and abundant wildlife • Town grew to provide accommodation, food and other services to tourists
Different Kinds of Urban Places GOVERNMENT CITIES • Provide services to people at a local, regional, or national level • Activities include everything from garbage collection, to healthcare, to old-age pensions Ottawa, Ontario • Parliament – Federal government • Determines activities and services that are required for everyone in Canada
Different Kinds of Urban Places RESOURCE-BASED COMMUNITIES • Villages, towns, or cities that are established to develop a resource • Boom-bust economies as resources are exploited FlinFlon, Manitoba • One of the richest copper-zinc deposits in Canada • Established in the 1920s
Different Kinds of Urban Places DIVERSIFIED URBAN CENTRES • As some cities develop they may fulfill several functions - these are referred to as Diversified Urban Centres • Examples: Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver
Central Business District • German geographer Walter Christaller in 1933 • Recognized the economic relationships between cities and their hinterlands • People gather together in cities to share goods and ideas and they exist for purely economic reasons • “central place” exists primarily to provide goods and services to its surrounding population • Distribution centre
CBD Two assumptions: • Humans will always purchase goods from the closest place that offers the good • Whenever demand for a certain good is high, it will be offered in close proximity to the pop’n • Threshold population is very important • The number of people needed for a central place business or activity to remain active and prosperous • Low, middle, high-order goods
Greater Golden Horseshoe • Greater Golden Horseshoe = area from Niagara through GTA to Peterborough and north as far as Collingwood • 4 million more people expected to move here in the next 25 years • Creating 2 million new jobs
Places to Grow The Growth Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe, was released on June 16, 2006. It is a 25-year plan that aims to: • Revitalize downtowns to become vibrant and convenient centres. • Create complete communities that offer more options for living, working, learning, shopping and playing. • Provide housing options to meet the needs of people at any age. • Curb sprawl and protect farmland and green spaces. • Reduce traffic gridlock by improving access to a greater range of transportation options.
Ontario Greenbelt • February 2005, the Ontario government passed a law creating a 7200 km2 greenbelt in southern Ontario • Protects environmentally sensitive land and farmland from urban development • Essential for providing clean air and clean water to cities • Trees act as “lungs” for a wide area, and filter air pollution, while rivers and streams are sources of drinking water for millions of people
The Facts • Protects 1.8 million acres (720,000 hectares) of countryside, with farming being the dominant land use. • The Greenbelt extends 325 kilometers from Rice Lake in Northumberland County to the Niagara River. • The Greenbelt’s natural heritage system protects about 535,000 acres of lakes, wetlands, river valleys and forests. • Habitat is protected for wildlife and endangered species within a continuous band of green countryside. • Open space is maintained for tourism, recreation and healthy living. Over 50% of people living in central Ontario are likely to take advantage of the tourism and recreation possibilities of the Greenbelt. • The Niagara Escarpment’s Bruce Trail is connected with the Oak Ridges Trail making it possible to hike from Rice Lake, South of Peterborough, to Queenston and up to Tobermory on Georgian Bay. • The value of the Greenbelt's measurable non-market ecosystem service is estimated to be $2.6 billion annually, which is $3,487 per hectare.
Oak Ridges Moraine • Created through glaciation 12,000 year ago • Consists of a series of rolling sandy hills and river valleys • Sand and gravel in the moraine acts like a giant sponge, soaking up rainwater and snowmelt which replenishes groundwater • Forms the headwaters of 65 river systems that flow south into Lake Ontario and north into Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, and Trent River System
Oak Ridges Moraine • Located north of Lake Ontario stretching 160 km from the Niagara Escarpment to the Trent River • 65% of the area of the Oak Ridges Moraine lies within the GTA • Rely on the moraine for drinking water, growing and grazing land, wooded areas, and aggregates (sand and gravel)
Trafalgar Moraine • Rich in silt and clay • 20 km long, extending from Niagara Escarpment into Mississauga (Streetsville) • The origins of several creeks, including Fourteen Mile Creek, McCraney Creek, Sixteen Mile Creek, Munn’s Creek, Morrison Creek , and Joshua’s Creek
Oakville Official Plan • Livable Oakville, is the town's official plan for the lands south of Dundas Street and north of Highway 407, was approved by the Ontario Municipal Board (OMB) on May 10, 2011. • The plan directs growth to identified growth areas while protecting the town's stable residential neighbourhoods, green spaces and employment lands to 2031. • Midtown Oakville, Uptown Core, Palermo, Bronte and Kerr Villages, and Downtown are clearly identified in the plan as growth areas. • Planned growth in these areas will preserve, enhance and protect the distinct character, cultural heritage, living environment and sense of community in Oakville's established neighbourhoods.
New Communities of Oakville Well designed neighbourhoods, efficient use of existing land and flexible transportation options will make the New Communities of Oakville a more livable and sustainable community. • The New Communities of Oakville will feature: • A variety of uses from residential to commercial to employment • A grid street network that offers more opportunity for public transit and walkability • Green space that is protected • Off-road trail system for cyclists and pedestrians • Heritage elements • Managed water resources
Land Use and Zoning Details • Existing Communities: • http://www.oakville.ca/townhall/livable-oakville-plan.html • North Oakville East and West Secondary Plan areas: • http://www.oakville.ca/townhall/new-communities-of-oakville-policy.html
Your Turn... • Based on the information presented today and you current knowledge of Oakville, Ontario Greenbelt, CBDs, etc. you will be taking on the role of various stakeholders to determine their opinions the development plans in the future. • Fill in the “Stakeholders Perspectives” handout. • Be sure to rationalize your decisions with adequate detail. • This will be very important for next unit when we have a formal debate!!!