Quiz Questions 1.Who was Pausanias of Orestis? 2. Who was Olympias jealous of and why? 3. Why did Attalus ask people to pray for “a legitimate heir”? 4. What year was Philip Murdered? 6. Give two events that might indicate Alexander’s involvement? 7. Why might Darius have been to blame? 8. What was the name of Philip’s new, younger lover, that Pausanias was jealous of? 9. At whose wedding did Philip get killed? 10. What was the name of Philip’s new wife?
The Murder of Philip II Dun dun duunnn….
The details When did it happen? • Summer of 336 BC. King Philip was 46 years old. Where did it happen? • Aegae (the old Macedonian capital) What was going on? • The wedding of Philip’s and Olympias’ daughter, Cleopatra to Alexander the King of Epirus (brother of Olympias) • The murder occurred during the elaborate games that had been arranged for the following day after the wedding feast.
Whose Wedding? A political wedding. • Philip had ruined the ties between Macedonia and Epirus by cheating on his wife Olympias (from Epirus) and marrying a woman from Macedonia (Cleopatra) . • So, by marrying Philip and Olympias’ daughter (Cleopatra) to Olympias’ brother (Alexander) the ties between Epirus and Macedonia would be strong once more. Alexander of Epirus Cleopatra Phillip II Olympias Alexander the great Cleopatra Yes, she was marrying her uncle
How did it happen? • Philip was making a grand entrance into the theatre accompanied by his son, Alexander and new son-in law the Alexander the King of Epirus. His bodyguards were following further behind. • Pausanias of Orestes (Philips former lover/bodyguard) ran from the crowd and fatally stabbed Philip in the chest. • Pausanias of Orestes then attempted to escape by running to the gates where he had a horse waiting. However he caught his foot in a vine and fell to the ground where he was caught by a group of Philip’s bodyguards and immediately speared to death with Javelins.
Aigai / Aegae(modern Vergina) Movie clip Location of the murder of Philip Theatre
Why did Pausanias of Orestes kill King Philip? There are many possible motives involving different people • Because he had a personal grudge against Philip • Because Olympias told him to • Because Alexander told him to • Because the Greeks told him to • Because Persian King Darius told him to
The cast. Attalus (Cleopatra’s Uncle) so Philip’s Uncle in law King Philip II Pausanias Of Orestis Pausanias The younger
Then Philip dumped Pausanias of Orestis and started being with Pausanias the Younger. Pausanias of Orestis got jealous.
Pausanias of Orestis was so jealous of Pausanias the younger that he started harrassing and insulting him. Pausanias the Younger was so Upset about the harrassment that He told his friend Attalus about it.
Pausanias the Younger got so upset about being harrassed and insulted that he committed suicide by throwing himself infront of King Philip in battle
Attalus wanted to avenge Pausanias the Younger’s death. So he came up with a plan… deviously clever in its intrickety
Attalus invited Pausanias of Orestis Around for dinner and got him blindly Drunk. He then set his men On Pausanias of Orestis who brutally attacked him and sexually abused him.
Pausanias complained to Philip demanding justice for his assault, but Philip did nothing because Attalus was too influential as well as his uncle-in-law. Attalus was also the general in charge of the advance guard to Asia.
Philip attempted to appease Pausanias of Orestis anger with gifts and promotions but he was not satisfied and decided to kill Philip.
Or was Pausanias put up to it by someone else? • There is evidence to suggest that Pausanias was not acting alone and that other people are to blame. Because: The dates of the battle where Pausanias committed suicide and that Pausanias of Orestis was assaulted by Attalus’s was 8 years earlier than Philip’s murder. Some argue that this is a long time for Pausanias to hold a grudge. But it is possible. If it wasn’t due to personal motive…….. Who put Pausanias up to it?
The Suspects • Alexander • Olympias • Darius, King of Persia • Antipater • Lyncestian Brothers • The Greeks
Suspect 1: Alexander The death of Philip came at such an opportune time for Alexander because his relationship with Philip was rather unstable due to 3 reasons . . . . 1. At Philip and Cleopatra’s wedding feast • Attalus (Cleopatra’s uncle) called on guests to pray for “a legitimate son” – meaning a full Macedonian prince to take over Philip’s throne (this insulted Alexander (half macedonian and half Epirus) and Olympias. • Alexander got upset that his father did not defend his or his mother’s honour.
Also… 2. Alexander’s position as heir was threatened by Philip’s new wife if she gave birth to a son. • Cleopatra’s son would be more Macedonian than Alexander 3. The Pixodarus affair
Pixodarus was the ruler of Caria. He was connected with the Persian King Artaxerxes III. After King Artaxerxes died in 338 BC Pixodarus offered his daughter in a marriage alliance with Philip’s other son Philip Arrihaeus (the half-witted son of Philip and a Thessalian woman). This would make political ties between Philip and Caria. A very useful link. Pixodarus daughter Philip Arrihaeus (Alexander’s Half brother) Philip II King Pixodarus
Alexander found out and thought he was being underminedHe secretly offered to marry Pixodarus’ daughter instead which Pixodarus happily accepted
Philip found out and was extremely angry at Alexander for getting in the way, because his marriage alliance would have aided Philip’s advance into Asia. Philip stopped the wedding.
To punish Alexander for undermining him, Philip banished Alexander’s closest friends, including ptolemy and nearchus.
Suspect 2 : Olympias • She had been replaced as Philip’s favourite wife • She was very resentful of Philip’s new wife Cleopatra • She was determined to see Alexander succeed to the Macedonian throne. • The historian Justin gives some accounts of Olympias’ actions after the murder which make her seem guilty. • According to Plutarch, Olympias encouraged Pausanias’ resentment of Philip.
Suspect 3: Darius, The Persian King • Philip was planning an invasion of Persia • According to Alexander’s letter to Darius in 333 BC, the Persians claimed credit for the murder. Suspect 4: Antipater • A Macedonia Noble • May have approved plot to kill Philip • First to acclaim Alexander as King • Disapproved of Philip’s claims of divinity
Suspect 5The Lyncestian brothers • There were 3 Brothers: Arrhabaeus and Heromenes and Alexander • They were memebers of royal family from Lyncetis • Their father had been exiled by Philip • Alexander blamed 2 of the brothers for the death of Philip and they were executed shortly after Alexander became King • The third Lyncestis brother, Alexander, was spared only because he was the first to recognise Alexander as the new King.
Suspect 6:The Greeks • Angry at the defeat at the battle of Charoneia • Resist Philip’s leadership under the League of Corinth • Stirred up by Demosthenes of Athens who preached against the uncivilised state of Macedonia & the evil nature of Philip, he encouraged the battle of Charoneia, where the Greeks took on the Macedonian Army)
So who is guilty?? Pausanias certainly killed King Philip • But no real evidence that can confirm whether he acted alone or was put up to it. • We can only speculate as to who may have been involved. • What Diodorus said, sums up Alexander’s and Olympias involvement perfectly, “But the death of the King occurred at so opportune a moment for Alexander and his mother that they were inevitably suspected of having instigated Pausanias to kill him”.
Follow up questions • What was the occation that Philip was mudered at? • What was Pausanias’ reasons for killing the king? • Why might this motive for the murder be doubted? • Who else might have wanted Philip dead and why?
In your workbooks • ‘The murder of phillip’, read and highlight page 19 • Answer questions on the Hamilton worksheet on the following page ‘the murder of philip’ p. 21 • Answer questions in Paul Artus Study notes, p.18