Chapter 14 Destinations: Tourism Generators
DESTINATIONS • Travel and tourism usually involves having a destination in mind. • Destinations go hand in hand with travel motives, as discussed earlier. • People travel for reasons of (1) recreation; (2) business and; (3) to visit friends and relatives • This module will focus on recreational travel
DESTINATIONS Motives for pleasure travel include: • Religion • Health • Scenic beauty • Sporting events • Culture • Entertainment • Combinations of the above
DESTINATIONS Secondary and Primary Destinations • Primary destinations are those that draw tourists from great distances and are the main reason for travel (name three) • Secondary destinations draw people from nearby or they stop on the way to somewhere else (name three)
MASS MARKET TOURISM • It was not long ago that travel (for pleasure) was reserved for the wealthy • While wealth still affords certain privileges, travel is now available to the middle-class and others • Travel has become less expensive, more “democratic” and more “accessible” • Examples include Las Vegas and Disney
PLANNED PLAY ENVIRONMENTS • Planned play environments are those that are built (temporarily or permanently) with the intention of attracting tourists • Examples include fairs and festivals, amusement parks, theme parks, gaming destinations and even entire cities
THEME PARKS • Amusement parks, the predecessor of theme parks, have been in this country for over 100 years • The oldest continually operating amusement park in the United States is Lake Compounce in Bristol, Connecticut, which opened in 1846 • Theme parks are a more recent development and focus on one particular theme (Disney, LegoLand) • Together, they draw over 300 million visitors each year and generate about $10 billion
INDUSTRY FACTS (FROM IAAPA) • There are more than 600 amusement parks and traditional attractions in the U.S. alone. In 2006, 335 million people visited these venues and enjoyed more that 1.5 billion “rides.” • There are approximately 300 amusement parks in Europe. • Four of the world’s top ten most visited amusement parks are in Asia. • The U.S. amusement industry provides jobs for upwards of 500,000 year-round and seasonal employees. • 28 percent of Americans surveyed visited an amusement park last year.
THEME PARKS • While Disney World is the most well known theme park but there are others that focus on a particular concept such as historical, marine, nature, fictional characters, etc. • Disney, though continues to be the leader.
DISNEY Consider that Disney owns/operates: • 5 major themed destinations around the world • WDW in Orlando is the largest • Hong Kong DisneyLand is the newest • Revenues from Disney theme parks are in excess of $9 billion
DISNEYWORLD • Walt Disney World is on a scale that no other park in the world can compete • Disney is at once a theme park operator, hotel provider, food service operator, nightclub and sports provider, club manager, etc. • Disney employs 55,000 employees in Orlando alone
REGIONAL THEME PARKS • Regional theme parks operate on a slightly smaller scale • In most cases, they can be classified as secondary destinations • Six Flags is the world’s largest regional theme park operator • Others include Dollywood and LegoLand
GAMING AND CASINOS • At one time, if somebody wanted to gamble legally, they had to travel to Las Vegas (1931) or Atlantic City (1976) • Las Vegas is still the grand gaming destination but tourists have many other options • At this time, 47 states offer some sort of legalized gambling (including lotteries)
GAMING AND CASINOS • In addition to always being near a place to place a legal wager, there are now additional gaming destinations to travel to • Connecticut (Foxwoods and Mohegan Sun) • Mississippi Gulf Coast • Midwest (riverboats)
GAMING AND CASINOS – LAS VEGAS • Las Vegas is still the major gaming destination in the US • It offers much more than gaming though and, in recent years, has made a conscious effort to diversify – restaurants, stage shows, shopping and attractions • Las Vegas attracted over 38 million visitors last year
GAMING AND CASINOS – LAS VEGAS • Everything in Las Vegas seems to get bigger and bigger • Over 3,000 new hotel rooms were added in 2005 • The ADR and Occupancy Rates continue to increase • There are new projects in the planning stages totaling $30 billion
GAMING AND CASINOS – ATLANTIC CITY • Atlantic City operates on a much smaller scale than does Las Vegas although it attracted 35 million visitors last year • Visitors tend to come from the region though (over 30% come from NYC), stay for shorter periods and spend less • AC is attempting to reposition itself to younger people though by offering more and by providing a more luxurious setting
GAMING AND CASINOS – MOHEGAN SUN • Located on 240 acres in southeastern Connecticut - competes with Foxwoods • Owned by the Mohegan Tribal Gaming Authority • 300,000 square feet of gaming space • Retail, dining, entertainment, 1,200 hotel rooms • New $740 million project is underway
SHOPPING • Shopping has become a primary tourist activity • Shopping areas (Michigan Avenue, Newbury Street), Shopping Centers (St. Louis Centre, Prudential), and Malls (West Edmonton and Mall of America) all contribute to this tourist activity • The largest malls are now in Asia (8 of the 10 largest malls in the world are now located in Asia) • Golden Resources Mall (in Beijing) is the largest at (50% larger than Mall of America)
NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS • Natural environments include national parks, state parks, eco resorts, etc. • Their purpose (for tourism purposes) is to provide an experience different from those of “man made” destinations • The National Park Service preserves unimpaired the natural and cultural resources and values of the national park system for the enjoyment, education, and inspiration of this and future generations. The Park Service cooperates with partners to extend the benefits of natural and cultural resource conservation and outdoor recreation throughout this country and the world.
FAIRS AND FESTIVALS • Fairs and festivals are driven by tradition, culture, and economics • They can be large (Worlds Fairs) and small (East Cupcake, Missouri Film Festival) • Successful events attract both locals and tourists and contribute to the local community