Text Structures: Patterns & Organization of Expository Text
Descriptive Listing Chronological/ Sequential Cause/Effect Comparison/Contrast Problem/Solution Six Types of Expository Text Organizational Patterns/ Internal Structures -Piccolo, J. (1987). Expository text structure: teaching and learning strategies. The Reading Teacher, 40, 838-847.
Descriptive • Presents a specific topic and addresses its attributes • No specific signal words • Is the author trying to tell the reader what something is? • Graphic organizers commonly used: Circle map or web
Listing (Enumeration) • States main topic in the topic sentence and has a list of examples for support • Signal words: first, second, third, next, last, finally • Is the author trying to give a specific list of things that are related to the topic and tell about each? • Graphic organizers commonly used: Flow map or flow chart
Chronological/Sequential • Has a main topic supported by details which must be in a specific order to convey the correct meaning • Signal words: first, second, third, then, before, after, next, last, finally • Is the author trying to tell someone how to do something or make something by relating the order of steps? Is the author trying to relate a series of events in time order? • Graphic organizers commonly used: Flow map or flow chart
Cause/Effect • Makes a statement in the topic sentence; supporting details tell why the statement was made • Signal words or phrases: so, so that, because of, as a result of, since, in order to • Is the author trying to give reasons why something happens or exists? • Graphic organizers commonly used: Multi-flow map
Compare/Contrast • Subjects are compared, contrasted, or both; supporting details show how subjects are either alike (comparison) or different (contrast), or both • Signal words or phrases: different from, same as, alike, similar to, resembles, compared to, unlike • Is the author trying to show the similarities or differences between two topics or aspects of a topic? • Graphic organizers commonly used: Double bubble map or Venn diagram
Problem/Solution • States a problem in topic sentence; supporting details describe the problem, its causes, and solutions • Signal words or phrases: a problem is, a solution is, the problem is solved by • Is the author trying to state a problem and offer some solutions? • One-sided multi-flow map
A text may contain multiple external text structures: Underlining key words Subheadings Illustrations Italics Definitions External Text Structures
Now You Try It • Locate the selections in the Literature textbook as outlined by your teacher. • Identify which internal text structure/organizational pattern is used in each. • Create a PowerPoint presentation including a sample of the selection and why it fits the text structure/organizational pattern. • Your are creating this presentation for a good friend of yours who missed the lessons on text organization and structure. Your friend will use your presentation as a study guide for the test.