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Module 2

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  1. Module 2 ISSUES IN CARIBBEAN DEVELOPMENT – Patricia Claxton

  2. WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT ABOUT? Development is about growth. It is both a process and a desired state. Several definitions exist and each has its own indicators by which it is measured. Phrases that have been coined to describe countries include: developed, developing, undeveloped, under-developed, less-developed etc. There are also schools of thought challenging the world view’s “myth of development” essentially postulating that the ideology subscribes to a biased, Western model which puts the industrialized nations at the top of the proverbial pyramid with ‘Third World’ countries having no hope of ever becoming ‘developed’.

  3. DEFINITIONS OF DEVELOPMENT • Human development is defined as the process of enlarging people's freedoms and opportunities and improving their well-being. Human development is about the real freedom ordinary people have to decide who to be, what to do, and how to live. The human development concept was developed by economist MahbubulHaq • Economic Development – A sustained increase in the value of goods and services produced by a country. • Sustainable Development – Development that meets the present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Thus economic as well as social factors are considered

  4. INDICATORS AND FACTORS OF DEVELOPMENT

  5. Indicators… Per Capita –World Bank GDP - per capita (PPP): $31, 967.2 (2014 est.) – T&T$16, 057.8 (2014 est.) - Barbados$8, 875.5 (2014 est.) - Jamaicanote: data are in 2012 US dollars Definition: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year. This measure is crucial in estimating the living standards of a country as it calculates how much income is potentially available to each person

  6. INDICATORS – Gini Coefficient • Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income or consumption expenditure among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.

  7. Indicators… • The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. It was created by a Pakistani economist MahbubulHaq and Indian economist Amartya Sen in 1990 and was published by the United Nations Development Programme.

  8. Internet penetration • Internet penetration would allow for the sharing of knowledge as well as it would open up communication for business in the fields of e-commerce and advertising to a global market. Social and human development is also more accessible as this sharing of knowledge also enhances people’s ability to make informed choices and to find associations and support for different issues in the virtual space.

  9. Indicators (cont’d) - Productivity • This is a measure of efficiency of the economic activity. Many economists have attempted to measure the productivity of key industries such as tourism and agriculture and have found that these ventures require heavy capital input that often exceeds output/profit that is ultimately gained from the investment.

  10. Indicators – Modern Technology • This is the view that capital intensive industries that use a lot of machinery are better than labour intensive industries. The term ‘appropriate technology’ is sometimes substituted as it indicates the sensitivity to the fact that the old model of ‘developed’ countries will not be applicable in the 21st century. No longer are cheap raw materials and labour nor ready markets available as was the case during the colonial era when the ‘developed’ countries were on their growth path.

  11. Indicators – Good governance • Good governance as defined by the UN includes the following seven aspects: participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and [which should follow] the rule of law. • It also assumes that corruption is minimised and the views of minorities and the most vulnerable are taken in account in decision-making and that the present and future needs of society are considered at all times.

  12. FACTORS (cont’d) • Environmental factors – In the Caribbean, environmental hazards are inevitable, however, legislation such as strict building codes can help to mitigate the effects of such hazards. Inequalities in the society can lead to poorer groups being more vulnerable. Environmental hazards are also created by big businesses using shortcuts to make more money and by poorer classes who settle on hill slopes etc. In addition there still persists a lackadaisical attitude by some towards ecological disasters," God is s Trini”

  13. THE TOURISM FACTOR The tourism industry often referred to as the invisible trade is the biggest industry in the world today and many Caribbean countries are seeking to capitalise on its benefits especially in light of the failure agricultural industries and the absence of manufacturing industries in most islands. However it is by nature an industry that encourages dependency. From the traditional sun, sea and sand, the tourism product as determined by the visitors have expanded to include ecotourism, adventure tourism, sports tourism, enclave tourism, health tourism, festival tourism and cruise ship tourism.

  14. CONTRIBUTION OF TOURISM TO THE REGION • Increased GDP for countries • Economic diversification • Creation of employment • Development of niche markets • Fosters preservation of culture and the environment

  15. CHALLENGES FACED BY TOURISM • Repatriation of foreign dollars in all-inclusive hotels • Environmental degradation • Cultural erasure • Overdependence of economies on such a fragile and transient industry (new monoculture) • Social problems – trafficking of drugs, humans ammo.; - rise in STDs and other communicable diseases • Loss of locally owned land

  16. GLOBALISATION AND DEVELOPMENT • Globalisation is the process of increasing the connectivity and interdependence of the world’s markets and businesses so that they function as one global market. • The term can also refer to the transnational circulation of ideas, languages and popular culture without the restriction of nation-state borders.

  17. STAGES OF GLOBALIZATION • Internationalization of economic institutions in Europe and North America • Reduction in transport costs by improvements in shipping and railways before WWII • After WWII the process continued as institutions such as the UN, World Bank, IMF and GATT stabilized currencies, increasing trade and production • The minimizing of controls continued even after the 1970s oil crisis • The rise of TNCs or MNCs accelerated free trade and bolstered international capital

  18. FACILITATORS OF GLOBALISATION (TWWIT) • IMF (International Monetary Fund) – est. in 1945 to help in the recovery of post –war Europe. Today it also lends funds to other nations under conditions and advises on macroeconomic policy (currency devaluations etc.) • World Bank (Formerly International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) – est. around the same time of the IMF with a similar philosophy. However while the IMF was concerned with macro issues the WB deals with specific projects lending. The emphasis is essentially structural adjustments within the economic philosophy of liberalisation of trade practices. This institution is US led and controlled.

  19. FACILITATORS… (cont’d) • WTO (World Trade Organization) – formerly GATT(General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade) was founded in 1947 in Geneva, Switzerland. Its main focus is the promotion of free trade by encouraging compliance of trade agreements, lowering barriers to trade and focusing on tariffs. Unlike the IMF and WB its clear mandate focuses on globalization rather that internationalization. • TNCs (Transnational Corporations) - Essentially a TNC pulls together the factors of finance, technology, raw material supplies, manufacturing, distribution and, marketing in one privately owned organization. This entity is usually controlled in one country but draws upon the resources in many other countries. Examples include Pepsi, Courts, Shell and Holiday Inn.

  20. CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION (SCARED) These can be summarized in the acronym, SCARED • Submission to an economic model • Constriction of capital flow • Access to more markets • Removal of preferential trade • Erasure and hybridization of culture • Deepening of social inequality

  21. IMPACTS AND RESPONSES TO GLOBALISATION • Industry and commerce • Distributional sector • Labour • Technology • Ideology • Communication • Organization • Finance

  22. IMPACTS AND RESPONSES… • Distributional sector -Businesses have been forced to expand their choices and lower prices in the face of competition. Others have had to merge an form conglomerates; supermarkets have evolved into megamarkets e.g. TruValu • Industry and commerce – Business have had to adjust their outputs and level of technology to meet a global market. • Labour – labour has become more global since one’s skills can be easily transferred within the human resource of MNCs. For example several engineers, teachers nurses etc. have found well paying jobs in N America, Africa and the Middle East. Training has also become global with distance learning.

  23. IMPACTS cont’d… • Technology – the use of ICTs has accelerated especially within the last ten years, technology has kept pace with the ever expanding markets in an ever-shrinking world. Knowledge sharing has made processes more efficient in domestic, economic and political circles. Interestingly many government ministries have struggled to keep up. • Ideology – the expansion of the markets of ideas have had some positive and negative consequences. Examples of ideologies are trade liberalisation, protectionism, fundamentalism etc.

  24. IMPACTS… • Communication – By satellite television and the internet the whole world is reachable. World cup football is watched while in progress by a least a fifth of the world’s population.

  25. GLOBALISATION VS REGIONALISM • The Integration Movement: The recognition that the peoples of the English-speaking Caribbean share a common identity, even with diversity has prompted persistent efforts at regional integration. However, reluctance among territories stem from feelings that cooperation may involve losing one’s national identity. Thus development efforts in the Caribbean operate within a context characterized by this tension between regionalism and globalisation.

  26. THE INTEGRATION MOVEMENT • The West Indies Federation (1958-1962) - establishment of a federal state à la U.S.A 2. CARICOM – Caribbean Common Market (1973) • Free trade area with a common external tariff 3. OECS – Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (1981) • A common currency, bank, judicial system and so on but not a unitary state 4. ACS – Association of Caribbean States (1994)– the 4th largest trading bloc in the world comprising of the Caribbean region and Central and South America.

  27. INTEGRATION CONT’D 5. Free Trade of the Americas (FTAA) – This is proposed agreement to eliminate or reduce trade barriers among all nations of the Western Hemisphere with the exception of Cuba 6. CSME (1989) – Caribbean Single Market and Economy This body concerns itself with the removal of barriers to trade and travel

  28. OTHER FACILITATORS OF REGIONALISM • University of the West Indies(UWI)1949 • Caribbean Examinations Council(CXC)1972 • West Indies Cricket Board(WICB)1928 • Caribbean Tourism Organisation(CTO) • Regional Security System(RSS)

  29. SPORT AND DEVELOPMENT • Sport – structured physical activities that have a history, precise rules and also refers to more casual activities such as aerobics or even walking.

  30. SPORT cont’d Benefits – • Health and fitness • Character building • Intellectual development – scholarships • Generation of income and employment • Development of a Caribbean identity(cricket) • Establishment of a Caribbean presence on the world scene

  31. CHALLENGES TO SPORT DEVELOPMENT • Raw talent is not enough in an extremely competitive environment where sport is a science and heavy capital investment is needed to adequately prepare for competition • A policy for sport development with the appropriate financial backing is needed however this competes with more urgent needs in security and education, for example • Sport is still seen by many as only a recreational activityand not as a meaningful contributor to human development.

  32. INTELLECTUAL TRADITIONS • An ideology refers to the ideas and manner of thinking of a group, social class or individual. • It also refers to a system of ideas or ideals, especially one that forms the basis of economic or political policy.

  33. INTELLECTUAL TRADITIONS INFLUENCING THE CARIBBEAN • Pan Africanism • Negritude • Industrialization by Invitation • Marxism and neo-Marxism • Feminism • Indo-Caribbean thought • Indigenous perspectives

  34. PAN AFRICANISM MARCUS GARVEY Pan Africanism is a socio-political worldview, philosophy and movement which seeks to unify native Africans and those of African heritage into the ‘global African community’. It calls for a politically and economically united Africa or unity of African people. It also seeks to educate Africans about their glorious history, common struggles as well as to advocate for equal rights for all.

  35. The Negritude Movement This movement involved the French colonies of Africa and the Caribbean which called on all people of African origin to celebrate their blackness. Started by intellectuals in Paris who were opposed to a new French policy of total assimilation of all colonies. Its main proponents included Matinicans , AimeCesaire and Leopold Senghor was was president of Senegal from 1960 to 1980. Much disparity in views persisted in how and by what means liberation should come about. However there exists a plethora of writings in philosophy, politics, history and art that celebrates this popular movement.

  36. The Black Power Movement • By the 1960s the struggle for uplifting African peoples was taken up in the USA by Martin Luther King Jr whose peaceful movement for equality was thwarted by his assassination in 1966 . • Following his demise the Black Power movement emerged as a more radical force to combat white supremacy. Some of it’s famous leaders had Caribbean roots, such as Malcolm X form the Nation of Islam and Kwame Toure (Stokely Carmichael) • The Marxist influence of the movement also attracted trade unionists who incorporated its philosophy into their struggles for social justice. In 1970 in Trinidad , A young Lieutenant, Raffique Shah led an armed rebellion against the government with a small battalion of soldiers. • This was a culmination of months of protests form trade union leaders for better working conditions, civil society groups for social justice and political movements for political rights and freedoms.

  37. Industrialisation by Invitation • Operation Bootstrap is the popular name for this concept which was first initiated by Puerto Rico after WWII • It would later be modified by Sir Arthur Lewis of St. Lucia to become the model for the new economic model of the British colonies • It’s main characteristics included heavy foreign direct investment, tax holidays and large scale production geared to a foreign market; cheap local labour and adequate infrastructure to set up industrial estates.

  38. Marxism and Neo-Marxism • Marxism developed by Karl Marx put forward a theory of development that espoused ideas of empowering the majority through joint ownership of the means of production. • It saw capitalism as an unjust system of distribution of resources which would eventually fall – often by violent means to usher in a new order. • Neo- Marxists fused the ideas of Marxism within the context of their respective societies. These are often referred to as socialist states which can be seen as a stage in communism (a utopian ideal, where the state is no longer relevant in the society) • Form the original implementers of Marxism such as Lenin(Russia) to Caribbean leaders and thinkers such as C.L.R. James, CheddiJagan and Michael Manley these ideas in its many versions have greatly influenced intellectual thought in the region.

  39. Caribbean Feminism • Feminism involves the struggle for equal rights for women in the society. • CAFRA – Caribbean Association for Feminist Research and Action is the main body advocating for women’s rights in the Caribbean • Through various media the message has been slowly getting out , e.g. through literary works such as ‘Crick Crack Monkey’ by Merle Hodge, in politics through Eugenia Charles (Dominica), in law through Lynette Seebarran Suite and in education Patricia Mohammed. • One of the greatest challenges for feminist awakening is that most of these advocates are academics thus women at the lower social levels are still socialized in a male dominated manner.

  40. Indo-Caribbean thought • Much effort has been made by immigrants from India and their descendants to preserve their religion, culture and identity through cultural retentions and works of literature and music and through political associations • Trinidad, Guyana and Suriname have the largest East Indians and in these territories one can observe the perpetuation of Islam and Hinduism, the celebration of Eid and Divali, the infusion of Indian culinary arts dress, language and music into local culture. • Even though many practices persist, there has been some degree of assimilation and hybridisation of culture as seen for example in the growing number of mixed marriages, and the emerging of ‘cross-over’ music such as chutney soca in Trinidad. • Some influential intellectuals include Samuel Selvon (Guyana) and V.S. Naipaul (Trinidad) who wrote about the struggles of Indians as a minority group in the Caribbean.

  41. Indigenous perspectives Several intellectual works by West Indian historians have sought to debunk certain myths about the indigenous population – that they were extremely naïve and docile(Arawaks) or war-like(Caribs) or that they have been completely wiped out with the remaining few not of ‘pure’ Amerindian ancestry, or that they have no history and thus have had little effect on Caribbean history, society and culture. In Guyana, Dominica and Belize there have been struggles to correct injustices against Amerindians with reference to land rights, social economic and political marginalisation as well as a thrust to link to indigenous people in the region and around the world to strengthen their legacy.

  42. ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE MASS MEDIA The media is a main conduit of information around the world. It collectively refers to the collection and transmission of data through magazines, phono-recordings, films, print and all electronic media. The global knowledge and technological development has been facilitated by the mass media, especially the electronic media at the end of the twentieth century. The last decade is often referred to as the information age.

  43. THE MEDIA cont’d The media has three main functions • To inform • To entertain • To raise societal awareness

  44. TO INFORM For people to make informed choices adequate information needs to reach people in a timely manner. These choices may range from purchasing a product, planning a project, preserving the environment, protecting oneself from hazards as well as selecting people to positions of leadership. However the information that ultimately reaches the public is a function of several factors including: • Government policies concerning a free press • Big business interests • Mode of news delivery (news for entertainment etc.) • The impact of foreign press and cultural imperialism

  45. ENTERTAINMENT • Besides the obvious feeling of well being that comes from entertainment, many interest groups and governments have found that entertainment can serve as a medium to transmit educational messages to a more receptive audience • There also have been attempts to showcase local talent, however artistes seldom receive recognition and royalties for their work. This is one of the obstacles to a thriving entertainment industry

  46. MEDIA AND NATIONAL IDENTITY • In the past, countries such as Antigua and Barbuda and Cuba, government owned almost all the media • In other territories such as Trinidad and Tobago there are laws facilitating a mandatory space and time for government programming • CANA – Caribbean News Agency and CBU – Caribbean Broadcasting Union have developed programmes that inform about issues in several territories. Unfortunately, these instruments have not been fully utilized to achieve regional unity. Moreover the majority of their broadcast now focuses on politics, sport and entertainment at the expense of other issues such as the economy, health and security. • The Jamaica Cultural Development commission highlights cultural activities of the country through radio and television

  47. MEDIA AND CULTURAL IMPERIALISM • With the advent of cable television, the region has been awashed with US culture( speech, dress, values etc.) • We have absorbed their political views, stereotypes, dreams and aspirations. This has been a driving force behind the changing roles of men and women and the awareness of children. Some of these changes are positive and some are negative.

  48. Observation of media rights and privileges For the media to perform their tasks effectively certain rights must be observed • Right to security of person • Freedom to access information (Freedom of Information Act) • Equitable treatment of media organisations by public figures • Freedom of movement through countries and regions(CSME)

  49. Media and Public Health • Raises awareness and facilitates networking and social support • Creates climate of opinion for action • Provides advice for healthy living • Changes attitudes by providing examples and role models • Promoting specific products, events opportunities • Broadcasting achievements and rewarding action • Raises awareness and action for HIV/AIDS epidemic on individual, national and regional level