CONFLICT IN THE MIDDLE EAST 1975-PRESENT
LEBANESE CIVIL WAR: 1975-1990 • Influx of PLO fighters after “Black September” – 1970 • Fighting breaks out in 1975 between Christian militias and Palestinians and their allies. • Syrian troops sent in by Arab League in 1976; didn’t leave till last year. • Israel invades South Lebanon in 1982; aids Christian forces. • Sabra and Shattila camp massacres. • War does not end until 1990. Lebanon’s economy and its capital, Beirut, left in shambles. • Govt. no longer dominated by Maronite Christians & Sunnis.
PRE-EMPTIVE STRIKE • Israel bombs Iraq’s nuclear facility at Osirak before it’s completed in 1981.
SOVIETS INVADE AFGHANISTAN • Pro-Soviet govt. set up in 1973. • In trouble by 1978. • Brezhnev sends in over 100,000 Soviet troops to prevent Communist loss. US boycotts Moscow Olympics in 1980 in retaliation.
REFUGEES • Three million Afghans flee to Pakistan, others to other countries, incl. US. Millions more are displaced.
AFGHANS RESIST • Afghan tribesmen resist Soviets, who eventually control only the capital, Kabul • Starting in 1986, CIA arms these Muslim fighters with Stinger missiles that can shoot down Soviet helicopters • Muslim fundamentalists, incl. OSAMA BIN LADEN, flock there to fight “infidels,”
SOVIETS LEAVE • GORBACHEV pulls out troops in1989 • Warlords fight among themselves for control • Group of religious students called ‘Taliban’ take over in mid-1990s.
REVOLUTION IN IRAN • Before World War I Iran (Persia) was independent but under influence of British and Russians, who kept king (Shah) in power, prevented moves toward democracy. • In 1950s, new prime minister, Mohammed Mossadegh, proposed to nationalize oil industry. • CIA arranged a coup to overthrow him in 1953.
SHAH OF IRAN • Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1919 – 1980) • Promised constitutional monarchy • Increasingly took power from PM
“KING OF KINGS” • Crowned himself: • Emperor in 1967 • Also crowned his wife: empress • (Note: Peacock Throne->)
LEADERSHIP STYLE • Manipulation • Built loyal army • Expansion of constitutional powers • After assassination attempt • 1949 • Secret police: “SAVAK”: • Suppressed opponents • Helped rich at expense of poor
COLD WAR • Ally of the West • Bordering USSR. • US supplies billions in military aid • Oil deal with U.S. • Opponents critical of subservience to US
INCREASED OPPOSITION • From Shi’ite Muslims Western moderization: • Western clothing • Eliminated Qur’anic oaths Lack of democracy • Unresponsive to public opinion • Uneven distribution of wealth • Land reform
INCREASED DISCONTENT • In 1970’s • Islamic clerics, esp. Ayatollah Khomeini • built on popular discontent • Demonstrations, riots, strikes • Tied these ideas to Islamic principles • Called for overthrow of the Shah
REVOLUTION! • Widespread demonstrations • 1978-’79 • Shah’s gov’t. collapsed • Jan. 16, 1979 • Shah fled Iran • Went to Egypt
ISLAMIC REPUBLIC • Or theocracy • = gov’t which supports religion • Led by Rouhollah Khomeini …….. • Muslim “ayatollah” • Based on Islamic fundamentalism
HOSTAGE CRISIS • Ill and exiled Shah admitted to US for medical treatment • Angry students seize American embassy in Teheran. • Take staff hostage, hold most for 464 days. • Begins Nov. 4, 1979, ends at midnight of Jan. 19, 1980, when Ronald Reagan is inaugurated as US president • US cuts ties to Iran, considers Iran’s regime to be major enemy in Middle East
Iran – Iraq War 1980 - 1988
Beginnings… • Sept. 1980 Iraq invades iran • Iraq bombed oil and military targets • Saddam Hussien believed iran could be taken within days b/c of turmoil in iran
Iran Persian Shi’ite majority Iraq Arab Shi’ite majority Sizable AND DOMINANTsunni population as well Ethnic religious make up
Why is the religious and ethnic make up of iran and iraq significant?
Causes of the war • Border clashes in ’79 when Ayatollah Khomeini takes power • Iran encourages Shi’ites in Iraq to rise up against saddam • Iraq wanted Khuzestan province in Iran (oil) • Saddam had ambitions of controlling the region
Oil routes threatened by mines 60% of oil used by the west passed through the strait of hormuz Danger of drawing in other mideast nations Cold war implications The World threat
Key Targets • Iraq’s initial blitz failed • Iranians rallied behind Ayattolah Khomeini • Khomeini told iranians to drive out the infidels • Oil fields destroyed • 1million dead by the time the war was over
Attacks on international shipping • US frigate was hit by an iraqi missile (37 sailors killed) • 1987 iran mined persian gulf • US warships began mine sweeping and escorting oil tankers • 1987 naval confrontation between us and iran • 1988 us shoots down iranian civilian airliner (280 killed)
Taking sides • Arab nations – declare neutrality but support iraq (saudi arabia and kuwait lend iraq billions) • Ussr – started out neutral but supported iraq in the end • USA – sided w/ iraq, us supplied saddam with chemical and biological weapons
IRAN – SUPPORT FOR TERROR • Iran supports Hezbollah, a Shi’ite militia in the Lebanese Civil War • In 2006, Hezbollah shelled Israel and Israel retaliated
U.S. SANCTIONS • Hurt Iran’s economy
SIGNS OF LIBERALIZATION • Iran has popular elections, but council of senior clerics have the final say • New president, Rouhani, seen as a negotiator rather than a confronter • Young people also seem to want reform
According to Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, countries have a right to peaceful nuclear technology Iran has taken no steps to directly produce any weapons. Iran’s past support for terrorism makes its intentions suspect to US. Present Pres., Ahmedinajad, has verbally attacked Israel’s right to exist and questioned Holocaust. Fear of nuclear war. Iran has often not cooperated with IAEA on its nuclear program IRAN’S NUCLEAR PROGRAM
War in the Gulf: Iraq, Kuwait, and the US- Led coalition
Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait • August 2, 1990 Iraq invades Kuwait • Saddam wanted Kuwait's huge oil reserves and access to the gulf • Saddam expected no opposition • It was suspected he wanted to also invade Saudi Arabia
Un imposes a trade embargo • the un security council condemned the invasion and issued an embargo • An embargo by the security council meant that no member nation could sell to Iraq or buy from Iraq
Military build up • Pres. Bush organized a coalition to send to Saudi Arabia • 29 countries sent military aide • The coalition forces greatly outnumbered Iraqi forces
Arab reaction • Many Arab nations sided with the us b/c Iraq invaded a fellow Arab nation (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, UAE) • Some Arab nations supported saddam (Yemen, Algeria, PLo) • The plo supported saddam b/c he promised to destroy Israel and create an Arab nation
The War • Attempts to resolve the conflict peacefully failed • The coalition defeated Iraq in 100 hours • Iraq attempted to draw Israel into the war by launching missiles at Israel
War’s aftermath • us encouraged Kurds and Shiites to overthrow saddam • They made gains in their areas, but were quickly crushed by saddam’s remaining forces • The coalition provided no assistance to the Kurds or Shiites
Why would the us- led coalition not help the Kurds and Shiites defeat saddam Hussein?
Un weapons inspection • After the war, saddam was forced to comply with inspections • Periodically he would comply, then throw inspectors out • In 1998 the us and great Britain bombed Iraq again and claimed to have severely limited Iraq's military capability