Unit Seven Business Ethics and Manners Lesson One Ceremonial Address Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public Lesson Three International Business Negotiations Lesson Four Banquet Manners and Etiquette Differences
Lesson One Ceremonial Address Home Ⅰ．背景知识（Background Knowledge） Ⅱ．范例（Samples） Ⅲ．常用表达(Useful Expressions) Ⅳ．练习(Exercises)
Lesson One Ceremonial Address Home Ⅰ．背景知识（Background Knowledge） 是在正式场合中接待客人时使用的一种文体，分为欢迎辞和欢送辞两种。 它通常由称呼语、正文和结束语构成。其格式如下：称呼写在第一行左边，顶 格书写。称呼语有：Dear Mr./Mrs./Miss..., Dear sir/madam, Dear comrades and friends, Ladies and gentlemen, Boys and girls等。在写致辞的正文时，无论是欢 迎辞或是欢送辞，用词要有礼貌、语言要热情。致辞时，应把欢迎或欢送的人 物、身份、逗留或浏览的时间、主要活动以及离开的时间交代清楚。
Lesson One Ceremonial Address Home Ⅱ．范例（Samples） Sample 1 (参观工厂致辞) Good morning. On behalf of all of the employees of this factory, I thank you for taking time to visit us. Presently our factory is operating 24 hours a day to meet orders from overseas, so it might be a bit noisy. But by all means, take a good look around. At each department the person in charge will give you a detailed briefing and will answer any questions you may have. Now let me introduce Mr. Smith, who has had experience overseas, and who will be your guide throughout the day. 注 释 译 文
Lesson One Ceremonial Address Home Sample 2 (新年致辞) Ladies and Gentlemen, The New Year is around the corner, I would like to extend my New Years’ greetings to all my guests and with everyone good health and happiness. The New Year is a time of new beginnings and new hopes for the future. I hope that every one of you find yourself more prosperous and more content with each passing day this year. I know that this night will be fantastic celebration of the good friendship and good spirits that can last not only a year, but a lifetime. Have a wonderful evening, everybody, thank you. 注 释 译 文
Lesson One Ceremonial Address Home Sample 3 （公司成立致辞） Ladies and Gentlemen, I’m very glad today to speak at your company’s opening party. Your new company is determined to survive in the current economy. A company isn’t just a name and a building—it’s the staff that makes it work. Therefore, we’ll all grow and improve by the changes we make. I wish your great success in the very near future. Thank you. 注 释 译 文
Lesson One Ceremonial Address Home Ⅲ．常用表达方式（Useful Expressions） 1）出席宴会的贵宾有…… It is my pleasure to introduce /1 have the honor to introduce /1 would like to introduce the honored guests attending the banquet. 2）中国有句古话说：有朋自远方来不亦乐乎? There is an old saying in Chinese which goes: “Isn’t it a great pleasure to have friends coming from afar? As a Chinese saying goes, “ Nothing is more delightful than meeting friends from far away.”
Lesson One Ceremonial Address Home 3）我非常愉快地…… It is with great pleasure that I…; I have great pleasure to… 4）我为能……而深感愉快。 It gives me great pleasure to… 5）请允许我向远道而来的贵宾们表示热烈的欢迎和亲切的问候。 Allow me to express our warm welcome and cordial greetings to our distinguished guests coming from afar. 6）我们为能接待如此杰出的政界领导人而深感骄傲和荣幸。 We are very proud and honored to receive such a group of distinguished political leaders.
Lesson One Ceremonial Address Home 7）这使我有极好的机会来拜访老朋友，结交新朋友。 It provides me with / gives me / avails me of an excellent opportunity to meet old friends and make new ones. 8）今天，我们怀着极为兴奋的心情，在这里集会，欢迎…… We are gathered here today with great elation to welcome… 9）我们很高兴同……一道欢庆这个光辉的节日。 We are happy to celebrate this gracious festival together with… 10）今天我们在这里集会隆重纪念……周年 We meet here today to solemnly commemorate/observe the… anniversary of…
Lesson One Ceremonial Address Home 11）很荣幸答谢您给予我们的热情招待 to have the honor of reciprocating your warm reception 12）我愿借此机会感谢……的热情好客和周到安排。 I’d like to take this opportunity to thank…for the warm hospitality and thoughtful arrangements. 13）贵国政府在我们逗留期间给予我们体贴入微的关照，千言万语道不尽我们的感激之情。 Words can not fully express/convey our gratitude to you and your government for the great kindness and consideration you have given us during our stay here. 14）就要结束在我国的友好访问 to be about to conclude your friendly visit in our country
Lesson One Ceremonial Address Home 15）今天我们怀着无限惜别的心情，欢送…… With great reluctance, we bid farewell today to… 16）珍惜与……的传统友谊 to cherish one’s traditional friendship with… 17）东道主的热情好客将永远留在我的记忆中。 The generous/gracious hospitality of our host will remain in my memory forever. 18）这些良好的印象将永远珍藏在我们美好的记忆中。 These fine impressions will remain forever in our most cherished memories.
Lesson One Ceremonial Address Home 19）我期待着在不远的将来访问贵国。 I am looking forward to visiting your country in the near future. 20）在这临别之际，我们有一种恋恋不舍之情。 We feel reluctant to leave you at this moment of parting. 21）感谢您在百忙之中…… Thank you so much for … in spite of your busy / tight schedule 22）我愿借此机会，代表我们代表团的全体成员，对我们东道主的诚 挚邀请，表示真诚的谢意。 On behalf of all the members of my mission, I would like to take this opportunity to express our sincere thanks to our host for their earnest invitation.
Lesson One Ceremonial Address Home 23）现在，我愉快地宣布第二十二届万国邮政联盟大会开幕。 Now, I have the pleasure to declare the 22nd Universal Postal Congress open. 24）我预祝大会圆满成功！ I wish the conference a complete success! 25）我的发言到此结束，谢谢各位! And that concludes my speech. /I’d like to end/conclude my speech./Thank you for your attention. 26）祝旅途愉快。 I wish you a pleasant journey. / Have a nice trip. 27）一路平安。 Have a good flight. / I wish you a pleasant journey.
Lesson One Ceremonial Address Home Ⅳ．练习（Exercises） 1．选择正确单词填空 1）Who is going to ______ the minutes? （make/take） 2）Could you ______ us when you know the answer?（tell/say） 3）I’d like to ______ a point.（make/remind） 4）We need to ______ a date for the meeting. （take/set） 5）We ______ a good case for changing the system. （made/took） 6）Are you ______ second thoughts about the proposal? （having/taking） 7）All of our proposals were _________. （disagreed/rejected） take tell make set made having rejected
Lesson One Ceremonial Address Home 2．将下面的汉语译成英语 1）欢迎来我们的…… 2）我们感到能有机会与……欢聚一堂是一件荣幸的事。 3）首先，让我给大家介绍…… 4）我谨代表……向你们表示深深的谢意。 5）请允许我向贵宾表示热烈的欢迎。 6）欢迎……给我们讲话。 Welcome to our… We feel it an honor to have a chance to get together with… First of all,I’ll introduce... to you. I’d like to express our deepest thanks to you for... on behalf of... Allow me to give our warm welcome to our distinguished guest. Let’s welcome... to speak to us.
Lesson One Ceremonial Address Home 3、将下面的英语译成汉语 1）We hope you’ll have a good time during your stay here. 2）Today we gather here to have a send-off meeting, as Mr. Li, our good friend, is going to leave for his homeland tomorrow. 3）We thank him for his wonderful work and kind help. 4）His visit here is a great success. 5）Wish you a pleasant journey and good health. 6）Thank you very much for your kind invitation. 我们希望你们在这里逗留期间能够过得愉快。 今天我们聚集在这里开一个欢送会，因为我们的好朋友—李先生明天就要回国了。 我们感谢他的出色工作与善意的帮助。 他在这里的访问非常成功。 祝你旅途愉快，身体健康。 谢谢你们善意的邀请。
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public Ⅰ．背景知识（Background Knowledge） Ⅱ．范例（Samples） Ⅲ．常用表达(Useful Expressions) Ⅳ．练习(Exercises)
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public Ⅰ．背景知识（Background Knowledge） 作为一名商务人士，你每天30%左右的工作时间是花在讲话上。每个工 作日内，除了其他方式的沟通外，还得以口头方式同你的同事、员工、上司 以及顾客沟通。有时候，还要和记者、银行职员以及来自其他企业和机构的 成员谈话。还有些时候，也会被要求向人们介绍公司情况。
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public 在上面提到的所有这些讲话活动中，真正重要的不在于讲了多少，而在于是 怎样讲的。一篇出色的讲话不仅为企业，而且也为你本人带来荣誉和实效，而 一篇糟糕的讲话不仅使你的企业丢脸，而且首先是使你——作为讲话人或是介 绍人——脸面全无。这就是关键所在：你讲话的效果决定了一切。这是许多商 务人士关心的问题，同时也是我们应尽量把话讲好的原因所在。
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public 例 如： A delegation formed up by MBA and Ph.D. candidates from the University of Southern California visited Shanghai Petro-chemical Company Limited(SPC). They received a warm welcome from the company. The SPC Secretary briefed the delegation on the development of SPC, its latest products and the listed H share on the New York Stock Exchange. He also answered a number of questions raised by the members of the delegation.
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public At the end of the briefing, the Secretary said, “SPC is still developing and is looking forward to more cooperation from the outside world. Those who would like to come and work here at SPC are welcome, no matter how long you want to work here...” His words were followed by a warm applause from all members of the delegation. A few members talked enthusiastically about what they had heard from the Secretary and expressed their desire to work for SPC for some time after they got their degrees. When asked about their impression of the briefing, one MBA candidate said, “It’s great. I’ve learned a lot about SPC.” “It’s impressive. I didn’t expect it.” Another one said. Other members of the delegation nodded their approval. Undoubtedly, this secretary had won honor for his company through his briefing. 译 文
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public 1．讲话如何展开 讲话通常由三部分组成，即开头、中间以及结尾。这三部分中，开头和结尾的讲话人应特别注意、认真分析。就讲话的中间部分来说，说话人应注意讲清时间、地点、人物、事件、原因以及怎样发生等方面。
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public 1）讲话该怎样开始 讲话开始时通常有一段介绍。介绍的作用就像是一场正式演出前的序曲；序曲给听众留下的是第一印象，并由此激发他们的兴趣。因此，说话人很有必要在开始的介绍上认真准备，以使听众的注意力能够集中在有利于说话人讲话的方向上。下面是一些常见的开头的例子：
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public Sample 1 “In today’s global economy, the role of technology and technological innovation are rapidly rising in prominence. More specifically, knowledge-based activities—from scientific R&D and knowledge production to innovation, value- added skills and knowledge diffusion—are changing the nature of competition, corporate strategy and government policies. For that reason, we are going to…” 译 文
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public 2）讲话该怎样结尾 以适当的方式结束讲话十分重要。如果说话人讲话的开头部分很精彩，那他的结尾部分应同样精彩才是——两头平衡。但是，如果由于种种原因开头部分做的不好，讲话人可以通过好的结尾来予以补偿，抵消开头不好的不利影响。 从心理学的角度上讲，听众对匆忙结束的讲话会有不同的反应——有人会以某种方式表示其失望的情绪，有人会对此感到奇怪，有人会产生一种受到冷遇的感觉。实际上，以不恰当的方式结束讲话通常对讲话以及对说话人本人会产生一种负面影响。因此，关注其讲话形象的讲话人应注意其结束讲话的方式。
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public Sample 4 There are a number of ways to signal the end like the following: （1）“So, if you’re career-oriented but can’t get into the first job within your career, an internship is a way of breaking that vicious cycle of not getting a job because you don’t have experience, and not getting experience because you don’t have a job.” （2）“In the final analysis, how well you network has an impact on your success. Keep in mind that there is only one letter difference between networking and not-working.” （3）“Thanks again for your invaluable and ongoing support on this research project.” （4）“Last but not least, send me an e-mail whenever you have questions about what I’ve said today.” 译 文
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public Ⅱ．范例（Samples） Sample 1 （Promotional Activities ） Lester：As you know, the FastTrek 2000 is due for release next month. I think we’ve finally worked the kinks out. Helen：Great. That’s vital. Quality is the focus of the ad campaign. The boards must work well if they’re going to be the cash cow we want them to be. Lester：Let’s go over our promotion plans again. Helen：OK. We have six major retailers running demonstrations at most branches. And our exhibition team is already on the road setting up for computer shows. 注 释 译 文
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public Lester：Good. What about print and radio? Helen：We’ve taken out full-page ads for two large trade magazines. And more importantly, our pressreleases have been well received. Lester：Any larger ads? Helen：Yes. We’re putting the same full-page ad in the Sunday edition of three major newspapers. Lester：Sounds perfect. Helen：But nothing ever works out as you want it. So I have a number of other tricks up my sleeve, as well. 注 释 译 文
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public Ⅲ．常用表达方式（Useful Expressions） 1．We want to develop direct contact with Continental buyers for ourselves. 我们想为自己的公司同欧洲大陆的买主建立起直接的联系。 2．We see that your firm specializes in Light Industrial Goods, and we are willing to establish business relationship with you. 得知贵公司专门经营轻工业品，我们愿意与贵公司建立业务关系。 3．We are willing to enter into business relationship with your company on the basis of equality and mutual benefit. 我们愿在平等互利的基础上与贵公司建立业务关系。 4．Our two countries have had trade relations for ten years. 我们两国之间已经有了10年的贸易关系了。
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public 5．We’ve never had any difficulties with our Chinese partners, and we’d like to make as many new contacts as we can. 和中国同行共事从来没有什么困难，希望今后我们之间尽可能多地建立新的关系。 6．We have made a very good start in our business with Japan. 我们和日本在业务上有了良好的开端。 7．Our company is thinking of expanding its business relationship with China. 我公司想扩大与中国的贸易关系。 8．As is known, we set great store by the trade relationship with the third world countries. 众所周知，我们十分重视同第三世界国家的贸易关系。
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public 9．We look forward to reactivating our business relationship. 我们盼望我们的业务关系重新活跃起来。 10．We shall welcome a chance to renew our friendly relationship. 很高兴能有机会来恢复我们的友好关系。 11．We’ll try our best to widen our business relationship with you. 我们将尽力扩大同你们的贸易关系。 12．We’re writing you in order to establish business relationship. 我们写此信是为了与你方建立业务关系。
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public 13．The arrangement will contribute to cementing our pleasant relationship. 此项安排将有助于巩固我们良好的关系。 14．We’re willing to restore our business relationship. 我们希望能恢复贸易关系。 15．It will be advantageous if steps are taken to resume our business relationship on the basis of mutual benefit. 如果我们采取措施在互利的基础上恢复业务关系，对我们都是有利的。 16．Since you are such an experienced sales manager and also enjoy high reputation in the research of promotion skills, we feel assured that your speech will be an excellent one and benefit us all.您是一位经验丰富的销售部经理，而且在促销技巧方面的研究享有盛誉，我们深信您的演讲将精彩纷呈，使我们大家都受益。
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public 17．We have been doing quite well in our business, and we are willing to open an account with you. 我们的生意一直做得不错，希望能与你们建立账户往来关系。 18．We’ve often expressed our interest in investing in China. 我们一直对在中国投资很感兴趣。 19．We have been working on expanding our scope of cooperation with China. 我们一直努力设法扩大与中国的合作范围。 20．We believe in long-term cooperation with China because we view the future as bright. 我们相信与中国长期合作的前途是光明的。
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public Ⅳ．练习（Exercises） 1．搭配题 You are Kate McKenna. You are starting a presentation. 1）welcome the attendants. You can say: ______. 2）outline the structure of the presentation. You can say: ______. 3）give the objectives. You can say: ______. 4）invite questions . you can say : ______. 5）move to the first point. You can say: ______. a. in the next hour or so, I’m going to …… b. if you have any question, don’t hesitate to let me know. c. by the end of the hour, you will be able to …… d. Ladies and gentlemen, thank you for coming e. so, let’s begin with the background. d a c b e
Home Lesson Two How to Speak Effectively in Public 2．用恰当的语句翻译下列句子(英汉互译) 1）Edward是非常有能力的，我想一些国际公务出差将开阔他的视野。 2）另外，Bibury Systems 愿意按建议零售价给你的顾客打折15%。 3）Looking at these quotations, I don’t think Parkview are the best option. 4）Since you are such an experienced sales manager and also enjoy high reputation in the research or promotion skills, we feel assured that your speech will be an excellent one and benefit us all. Edward is very capable and I think a little international business travel will broaden his horizons. In addition, Bibury Systems are prepared to offer your customers a discount of 15% on the recommended retail price. 看这些报价单，我想Parkview并不是最好的选择。 您是一位经验丰富的销售部经理，而且在促销技巧方面的研究享有盛誉，我们深信您的演讲将精彩纷呈，使我们大家都受益。
Lesson Three International Business Negotiations Home 第一部分 第二部分 第三部分
Lesson Three International Business Negotiations Home 第一部分 Ⅰ．背景知识（Background Knowledge） 1．谈判的基本概念 “谈判”一词来源于拉丁文“negotiari”，意为“做贸易或生意”。在商务谈判中，风险常常很大，人们不得不做出细致的事前安排。在这类谈判中，双方相互接触不仅仅是简单接受或拒绝对方的报价，而是在于更好地达成交易。谈判的整个过程建立在双方相互依赖的基础上。 国际商务谈判是发生在政府之间、贸易组织之间、跨国公司之间、私人商业组织之间和买卖双方之间的关于投资、商品进出口，以及技术进出口的一个磋商过程。要想达到预期的谈判目的，谈判者必须认真地贯彻执行本国的有关外贸政策。他们应该举止大方并能讲流利的英语，具有宽阔而扎实的专业知识和国际贸易知识，而且还需熟悉国内和国际市场。
Lesson Three International Business Negotiations Home 2．国际商务谈判的基本原则 （1）求同存异和实现双赢的原则 在国际商务活动中，谈判的双方或多方都有着一定的共同利益，但他们之间也存在商业利益的冲突。应该承认，在商务活动中无时无刻不充满着矛盾和冲突，而关键是我们如何运用有效的手段来化解这些矛盾和冲突。国际商务谈判与国内商务谈判的区别主要是谈判环境和谈判对象有别，国际商务谈判的地点可能在国外，涉及的对象可能是外国人。因此，谈判双方之间就存在商业习俗、法律制度、文化背景，甚至是人的因素等方面的差别。尽管存在上述差别，我们更应该看到他们的共性。特别是在国际经济一体化趋势下，讨论共性更具有实际意义。在这里，我们需要对国际上一般能接受的谈判原则和方法进行研究和介绍。其主要目的就是要提供给我国外经贸人员一个面对国际经营环境可以遵循的基本原则。如果在国际贸易活动中，个别差异性较大的情况出现，希望外经贸人员本着求同存异的原则，根据以下的框架针对不同情况进行适当调整，以达到最佳的谈判效果。
Lesson Three International Business Negotiations Home （2）双赢的谈判应该符合的标准 商务谈判并不是在商务冲突出现时才进行。商务谈判是谈判各方当事人在追求共同商业目标，实现双方商业利益整个过程中一个不断地化解冲突、实现谈判者最大利益的手段。实践证明，在竞争越来越激烈的市场上，谁能够有效地掌握这一手段，谁就会在商务活动中顺利地实现自己的商业目标，取得自己期待的主要商业利益。在这里需要强调指出，谈判的结果并不一定是“你赢我输”或“我赢你输”。谈判双方首先要树立“双赢”的概念。一场谈判的结局应该使谈判的双方都要有“赢”的感觉。我们在这里给大家介绍的谈判原则，是要让所有的谈判者都能遵循和接受，并且能够在实践中不断加以运用。从商务发展角度来看，谈判应使双方都得到商务发展的机会，即实现双赢，为此，应满足以下三个标准：
Lesson Three International Business Negotiations Home 1）谈判要达成一个明智的协议。 明智协议的核心特点就是双赢，谈判的结果应满足谈判各方的合法利益，能够公平地解决谈判各方的利益冲突，而且还要考虑到符合公众利益。不能使谈判内容和立场局限在一个方面，只重视各自的立场，而忽视满足谈判双方实际潜在的需要。
Lesson Three International Business Negotiations Home 2）谈判的方式必须有效率。 谈判的方式之所以应有助于提高谈判效率，是因为谈判达成协议的效率，也应该是双赢的内容之一，因为效率高的谈判，使双方都有更多的精力拓展商业机会；而立场争辩式谈判往往使双方争辩不休，难以选择双方满意的方案，有时简直是无谓地消耗时间。
Lesson Three International Business Negotiations Home 3）谈判应该可以改进或至少不伤害谈判各方的关系。 谈判的结果是要取得利益，然而，利益的取得却不能以破坏或伤害谈判各方的关系为代价。从发展的眼光看，商务合作关系会给你带来更多的商业机会。然而，立场争辩式谈判却往往忽视了保持商业关系的重要性，使谈判变成了各方意愿的较量。这样的谈判，往往会使谈判者在心理上产生不良的反应，容易伤害“脸面”，从而破坏谈判各方关系的续存。
Lesson Three International Business Negotiations Home Ⅱ．范例（Samples） Sample 1 (Negotiating Corporate Possibilities) A：Your agency has the experience we need. And we have the best-quality product. B：Yes. We agree your company has a good product. But we’d have to get certain guarantees before we promise to do business with you. A：What are those conditions? B：First of all, we’d have to insist on sole agency in China. Second, we’d want a 18% commission. Third, we’d need a three-year contract. 注 释
Lesson Three International Business Negotiations Home A：You’re asking for a lot. If we agree, will you pay 65% of marketing costs? B：That’s too high. We would prefer that you accept financial responsibilities for 50% of all costs. A：That is more than what I expected. I’ll have to talk with our president and call you later this week. 注 释
Lesson Three International Business Negotiations Home Ⅲ．常用表达方式（Useful Expressions） 1．Invite people to talk Would you care to open the discussion? Would you like to start things off? Well, gentlemen ... 2．Keep people talking Please continue (go on). Tell me more (everything). Is there anything else? Give me the full picture. Could you give me an example?
Lesson Three International Business Negotiations Home 3．Show that you understand I see (what you mean). I follow you. I understand. You’re being quite clear. 4．Support and reinforce Right. Absolutely. Perfectly true. So it is. So they are. I’m glad you said that.
Lesson Three International Business Negotiations Home 5．Welcoming and introductions On behalf of ABC Company, I am very glad to welcome you to our head office. Well, I’m delighted to welcome you all to our processing plant here in shanghai. Shall we just go round the table, making sure we all know each other? Mr. Smith, would you like to introduce your team? Let me introduce you to Marion Billis. She is our key Account Manager. I think we’d better get started now. We’ve got a very full agenda.
Lesson Three International Business Negotiations Home Ⅳ．练习（Exercises） 1. 选择题 1）A negotiation is a process of communication between parties to manage ______ in order for them to come to an agreement. A. interests B. stake C. relation D. conflicts 2）The outcome of negotiation is a result of mutual giving and ______. One- sided concession cannot be called a successful negotiation. A. taking B. working C. talking D. satisfactory 3）Stakes are the value of ______ that may be gained or lost, and costs that may be incurred or avoided. A. result B. issues C. benefits D. option D A C
Lesson Three International Business Negotiations Home A 4）The party giving the offer is called the ______, once the other party accepts the terms, who is called the ______. A.offeror…offeree B. offeree…offeror C. host…guest D. inquiry…offer 5）In addition to interest preference decision, negotiators, in view of negotiation strategy, will set at least three objective levels, which are desirable, acceptable and ______ target. A. highest B. best C. lowest D. bottom 6）Generally speaking, a negotiation team consists of a team leader or chief negotiator and an ______if it is a bilateral negotiation. A. expert B. interpreter C. manager D. lawyer D B
Lesson Three International Business Negotiations Home 7）A negotiation is, in a sense, a battle between negotiators’ wisdom, energy and______. A. knowledge B. ability C. patience D. authority 8）The method of principled negotiation is hard on the merits, soft on the______. A. people B. party C. position D. relation 9）Collaborative Principled Negotiation consists of four basic components: people, interests, ______ and criteria. A. problem B. gaining C. needs D. cooperation 10）The chance of success will increase when the overlapping parts are ______. A. large B. small C. little D. same C A B A