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Session Chair : Roger N. Reeb, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology PowerPoint Presentation
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Session Chair : Roger N. Reeb, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology

Session Chair : Roger N. Reeb, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology

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Session Chair : Roger N. Reeb, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology

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  1. The Psycho-Ecological Systems Model as a Guide for Engaged Scholarship and Service-Learning Research Session Chair: Roger N. Reeb, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology Director of Graduate Programs in Psychology University of Dayton Contact: rreeb1@udayton.edu A symposium presented at the Annual Conference of the International Association for Service-Learning Research and Community Engagement, Baltimore, MD, September 24, 2012.

  2. Psycho-Ecological Systems Model of Engaged Scholarship and Service-Learning Research: Multidisciplinary Applications • Session Chair: • Roger N. Reeb, Ph.D., University of Dayton • Presenters: • Theo Majka, Ph.D. and Linda Majka, Ph.D. , University of Dayton • Katherine Coder, Ph.D., University of Miami • Shawn Cassiman, Ph.D., University of Dayton • Laura Stayton, Annie Steel, Nyssa Snow, Sara Mason, Sarah Bidwell, Kirsten Kasper, Alisa Bartel, HayleeDeLuca, Adrienne Anderson, Graduate Students at University of Dayton • Discussant: • Robert G. Bringle, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, Appalachian State University; Senior Scholar, Center for Service and Learning, IUPUI

  3. Purpose of Presentation

  4. Purpose of Presentation • To describe a new conceptual model to assist in guiding engaged scholarship and service-learning

  5. Purpose of Presentation • To describe a new conceptual model to assist in guiding engaged scholarship and service-learning • To review a number of projects within the context of the model

  6. Purpose of Presentation • To describe a new conceptual model to assist in guiding engaged scholarship and service-learning • To review a number of projects within the context of the model • To generate ideas for future development of the model

  7. Background • Publication: • Reeb, R. N., & Folger, S. F. (2013). Community outcomes in service learning: Research and practice from a systems theory perspective. In P. H. Clayton, R. G. Bringle, & J.A. Hatcher (Eds.). Research on Service Learning: Conceptual Frameworks and Assessment (pp. 389-418). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing. • Local Presentation: • Stander Symposium, University of Dayton, 2011 • Regional Presentation: • Southwestern Ohio Council for Higher Education, 2011 • National Presentation: • American Psychological Association, 2011 • International Presentations: • IARSLCE, 2010, 2011 • International Symposium on Service-Learning, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China, 2011

  8. Psycho-Ecological Systems Model of Community Action Research (PESM) • PESM integrates three theoretical developments: • Principle of Reciprocal Determinism • Bandura, A. (1978). The self system in reciprocal determinism. American Psychologist, 33, 344-358. • Biopsychosocial Model • Kiesler, D. J. (2000). Beyond the disease model of mental disorders. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. • Ecological Systems Model • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1996). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  9. Psycho-Ecological Systems Model of Community Action Research (PESM) • Purpose of PESM • PESM was developed to inform and guide community interventions, including those associated with engaged scholarship and service-learning.

  10. Psycho-Ecological Systems Model for Community Action Research

  11. Principle of Reciprocal Determinism P B E P = Person Factors E = Environmental Factors B = Behavior

  12. Biopsychosocial Model • Internal Factors • Vulnerability Factors • Resiliency Factors • Developmental Factors • External Factors • Risk Factors • Protective Factors

  13. Psycho-Ecological Systems Model for Community Action Research

  14. Psycho-Ecological Systems Model for Community Action Research Microsystem: “a pattern of activities, roles, and interpersonal relations experienced by the developing person in a given setting…”

  15. Psycho-Ecological Systems Model for Community Action Research Mesosystem: “…a system of microsystems…” “it comprises the interrelationships among two or more settings in which the developing person actively participates…”

  16. Psycho-Ecological Systems Model for Community Action Research Exosystem: “one or more settings that do not involve the developing person as an active participant, but in which events occur that affect, or are affected by, what happens in the setting containing the developing person”

  17. Psycho-Ecological Systems Model for Community Action Research • Macrosystem: • “…overarching practices, beliefs, changes, and movements at broader levels (community, society, culture, government) that • function as blueprints for action…”

  18. Psycho-Ecological Systems Model for Community Action Research • Supra-Macrosystem: • “…international or global influences, such as internationally-endorsed values (e.g., Millennium Development Goals)…”

  19. Major Implications of PESM • Participatory approach • Multidisciplinary projects • Multidimensional assessment of community outcomes • Projects that enhance resiliency and resources in the community • Projects that reduce vulnerability and risk factors in the community • “Psychopolitical Validity” (Prilleltensky, 2008): • Enhance agency in community members and groups • Beyond ameliorative efforts, perhaps contributing to structural change • Prilleltensky, I. (2008). The role of power in wellness, oppression, and liberation: The promise of psychopolitical validity. Journal of Community Psychology, 36, 116-136.

  20. A Multidisciplinary Service-Learning Project for Homelessness • Graduate Student Presenters: • Laura Stayton, Annie Steel, Nyssa Snow, Sara Mason, Sarah Bidwell, Kirsten Kasper, Alisa Bartel, HayleeDeLuca, Adrienne Anderson, University of Dayton • Faculty Advisor: • Roger N. Reeb, Ph.D. • Faculty Consultant: • Shawn Cassiman, Ph.D. UNIVERSITY OF DAYTON

  21. Homelessness as a Major Social Problem • It is important to look at the problem of homelessness at the national, state and local levels: • U.S.: approximately 3.5 million people per year (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2009) • Ohio: more than 12,000 people per night (Homeless Solutions, 2008) • Dayton: more than 950 people per night (Homeless Solutions, 2008) • 10-Year Plan in Montgomery County: • Developed in 2004

  22. Assessment of Resources/Assets and Needs • This is a qualitative study utilizing interviews guided by PESM • Purpose of Study: • Conduct an assessment of existing community resources/assets and needs related to homelessness • Conduct an assessment of relevant service-learning resources at the University of Dayton • Long-Term Goal: • Multidisciplinary Service-Learning Project

  23. Community Assessment Purpose of Interviews Assessment of community resources/assets and needs related to homelessness at different PESM systems What kind of projects would be helpful? Who are stakeholders? Professionals in the community Community Members Examples:employees at shelters, local homelessness board members, police officers, job and family services, community volunteers.

  24. Assessment of Service-Learning Resources at UD • Next step is to identify potential service-learning projects (across disciplines) focused on homelessness. • University affiliates in various departments at University of Dayton are being interviewed and asked questions such as the following: • Do you require service-learning in any of the classes you teach? • Would you be willing to develop a service-learning project based upon homelessness? • How could your academic discipline contribute to such a project? • Also, asked to think of projects that might address different systems, and logistics of how to implement programs.

  25. Interviews Conducted • Community Agencies Interviews: • Homeless shelters, homelessness board members, police force, community mental health workers, social services, foster care, crisis center workers • University Interviews: • Departments Interviewed: • Psychology, Sociology, Social Work, Law, Political Science, Pre-Medicine, Criminology, Philosophy • University Centers Interviewed: • Fitz Center for Leadership in Community • Center for Social Concern

  26. Method and Themes • Number of university interviews: 12 • Number of community interviews: 9 • Interviews were analyzed and reoccurring themes were found throughout. • Themes were then grouped according to the levels of PESM. • Only the most frequent themes will be discussed.

  27. Psycho-Ecological Systems Model for Community Research

  28. Person-Related Themes:“Mental Health” • Definition of Mental Health Theme: • Any mention of a mental disorder or handicap and it’s relation to homelessness • Quote: • “…we have…people that…have severe mental health issues. The community in some cases does not seem to be caring for them...” • Frequency of Occurrence: • Community Stakeholder Interviews (n=22) • University Interviews (n=17 )

  29. Person-Related Themes:“Self-Concept” • Definition of Self-Concept Theme: • Any mention of how a homeless person feels about themselves. This theme includes ideas such as self-confidence, self-worth, self-esteem etc… • Quote: • “So many of the people who come into shelters have all kinds of horrible experiences, they are so down on themselves...” • Frequency of Occurrence: • Community Stakeholder Interviews (n= 21) • University Interviews (n = 3)

  30. Person-Related Themes:“Job Skills” • Definition of Job Skills Theme: • Any mention of the skills vital to gaining employment. This theme includes ideas like resume building, interview skills, tips on filling out applications etc… • Quote: • “…the more you prepare somebody…for the types of jobs society is going to have, the better chance they are going to be employed. If they are employed, then they can provide for their family.” • Frequency of Occurrence: • Community Stakeholder Interviews (n=11) • University Interviews (n=10 )

  31. Person-Related Themes:“Life Skills” • Definition of Life Skills Theme: • Any mention of skills that are vital in order to thrive independently in society. This theme includes budgeting, hygiene, household duties, and other skills important for every day living. • Quote: • “…students in accounting…could help…people understand how to balance a checkbook, how to better facilitate their management of their resources...” • Frequency of Occurrence: • Community Stakeholder Interviews (n=10) • University Interviews (n=10 )

  32. Person-Related Themes:“Drugs and Alcohol” • Definition of Drugs and Alcohol Theme: • Any mention of a drug or alcohol related problem that contributes to one being homeless • Quote: • “…so many of them have fallen into the drug and alcohol problem, and that becomes their priority…” • Frequency of Occurrence: • Community Stakeholder Interviews (n =10) • University Interviews (n = 4)

  33. Psycho-Ecological Systems Model for Community Research

  34. Micro-System-Related Themes:“Education” • Definition of Education Theme: • School related issues that an individual who is homeless may face or how it may affect their needs, as it relates to how service-learning can intervene. • Quote: • “…a student can be working as a tutor at one of the neighborhood school centers and enthusiastically get a student excited about learning.” • Frequency of Occurrence : • Community Stakeholder Interviews (n = 7) • University Interviews (n = 15)

  35. Micro-Related Themes:“Family” • Definition of Family Theme: • Generational cycle (of poverty, violence, etc.) and the effect of this on the homeless individual. • Quote: • “…we are seeing in our shelter, second and third generation homeless people…They do not have the skills to learn a lot and…it is terrifying…because the thought of being totally responsible for their family shuts them down.” • Frequency of Occurrence: • Community Stakeholder Interviews (n = 9) • University Interviews (n = 6)

  36. Psycho-Ecological Systems Model for Community Research

  37. Meso-Related Themes:“Mentorship” • Definition of Mentorship Theme: • A relationship in which the service-learning student can help guide the individual who is homeless. • Quote: • “Some of our…good mentoring…has come from students…Because they are a bit younger, the clients see them as different…They see students more as a mentor. They look up to them.”  • Frequency of Occurrence: • Community Stakeholder Interviews (n = 7) • University Interviews (n = 9)

  38. Meso-System- Related Themes:“Reciprocity” • Definition of Reciprocity Theme: • The idea that not only does the individual who is homeless will benefit from service-learning, but the student will also as well. • Quote: • “That’s the plus side too as it’s not just helping the community, it’s helping empower the students.” • Frequency of Occurrence: • Community Stakeholder Interviews (n = 9) • University Interviews (n = 17)

  39. Psycho-Ecological Systems Model for Community Research

  40. Definition of Community Theme: • Inquiring, examining and understanding the needs of the community • Quote: • “If you establish the partnership with the community first, your focus is more about establishing that partnership with that community member” • Frequency of Occurrence: • - Community Stakeholder Interviews (n = 2) • - University Interviews (n = 14) Exosystem Related Themes:“Community”

  41. Exosystem Related Themes:“Legal” • Definition of Legal Theme: - Working to impact legislative policies and working with the criminal justice system • Quote: - “…think about different dimensions of the problem.Students could focus on public policy issues that contribute to homelessness.” • Frequency of Occurrence: - Community Stakeholder Interviews (n = 7) - University Interviews (n = 7)

  42. Exosystem Related Themes:“Resources” • Definition of Resources Theme: - Examining and understanding the monetary investments and volunteer investments needed by the agencies • Quote: -“Our resources are limited…We continue to [have] cutbacks…in the funding, so therefore there are less services…[and] less people that we can service.” “…service learning projects…tend to be temporary, done in the context of the class a particular semester and then that is that.” • Frequency of Occurrence: - Community Stakeholder Interviews (n = 18) - University Interviews (n = 20)

  43. Psycho-Ecological Systems Model for Community Research

  44. Macro Level Themes:“Stigma” • Definition of Stigma Theme: • The stereotypes used to describe the homeless and the negative image and marginalization of the homeless as a result of the stereotypes • Quote: • “The kids carry the stigma around...People don’t even look at them…let alone help them...” • Frequency of Occurrence: • Community Stakeholder Interviews (n = 20) • University Interviews (n = 16)

  45. Macro Level Themes:“Awareness” • Definition of Awareness Theme: • Educating the community in order to create a more accurate picture of homelessness • Quote: • “…they lack…awareness of…the reality…to be homeless. We have such perceived ideas....of what a homeless person has done, to result in them being homeless...” • Frequency of Occurrence: • Community Stakeholder Interviews (n = 12) • University Interviews (n = 14)

  46. Macro Level Themes:“Economic Problems” • Definition of Economic Problems Theme: • The difficulty encountered when applying to jobs, the scarcity of jobs • Quote: • “They’re still able to work, a lot of them want to have jobs, and it is extremely difficult to get jobs.” • Frequency of Occurrence: • Community Stakeholder Interviews (n = 15) • University Interviews (n = 18)

  47. Macro Level Themes:“Housing” • Definition of Housing Theme: • The lack of affordable safe housing, housing that is not located near dangerous areas • Quote: • “…it is the lack of housing opportunities…There are not affordable housing units, nor subsided housing units, nor program openings…” • Frequency of Occurrence : • Community Stakeholder Interviews (n = 26) • University Interviews (n = 20)

  48. Development of an Intervention to Enhance Wellbeing of Humanitarian Aid Workers in Haiti Katherine E. Coder, PhD University of Miami drkat@shinemojo.com Symposium: The Psycho-Ecological Systems Model as a Guide for Engaged Scholarship and Service Learning Research

  49. Why Me?Motivations to Initiate this Project