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Building Graduate Communities: A Policy Imperative for Knowledge-based Societies

Building Graduate Communities: A Policy Imperative for Knowledge-based Societies

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Building Graduate Communities: A Policy Imperative for Knowledge-based Societies

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  1. Building Graduate Communities: A Policy Imperative for Knowledge-based Societies University of Alberta and China Scholarship Council Conference “Quality and Relevance: Canada-China Forumon Graduate Education and Research”,26 and 27th of August 2010. Louis Maheu, FRSC, Emeritus professor,Department of Sociology, University of Montreal, Canada

  2. Focus on 5 DimensionsRelevant to Today Graduate Education • Socially Distributed Knowledge Production (SDKP) System’s Requirements • S&T Recent Innovation Policies Characteristics • Canadian Assets / Challengesfor Building Graduate Communities • Canadian Strategy: ‘Building vs Buying’Graduate Communities? • Conclusion: Key Challenges for Building Graduate Communities in a SDKP Context

  3. Socially Distributed Knowledge Production System (SDKP) M. Gibbons et al.1994: ‘The new Production of Knowledge; The Dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies’, London, Sage • 4 Fundamental Characteristics: • KP within more complex world of partners / clusters / webs= Fundamental RD and University position revisited • Emergence of Contextualized RD: Up / Downstreamof complex problem solutions • Research open to ‘linked’ disciplines • KP Quality control: peers and partners

  4. Keynote Address ‘State of the State 2006’ Conference, October 30, 2006 Plus: The R&D and D RequirementsRobert C. Dynes (Former UC President): • Robert C. Dynes (Former UC President): • …what ‘we’re going to focus on at UC. The first is, we will fuel innovation and expand its impact on people’s lives by focusing on what I call R, D, and D. You’ve heard of research and development, R and D. The second D is as important, … The second D is delivery. If we do all the R and D in the world, and it isn’t delivered, it’s not effective.’ • A Case in Point: Biomedical Sciences Delivery System: Translational RD, ‘From the Bench to the Bed’

  5. 3 Characteristics of RecentScience & Technology Innovation Policies • People matter morethan technical / fiscal measures • Competencies: • Level: Graduate Education • Disciplinary… Plus: Professional Developmentand Interdisciplinary Skills • Clusters: • Beyond Academic / Organizational Boundaries • Beyond National Boundaries:Regional / International Clusters

  6. Cdn Assets / Challenges for Building Graduate Communities Sources: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators, 2006; Science,Technology and Innovation Council, Canada’s Science, Technology and Innovation System. State of the Nation. 2008

  7. Higher Edu. Expend. On R&D as % of GDP: 1981-2004 Higher Education Performance of R&D, 2006 Sources: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators, 2006; Science,Technology and Innovation Council, Canada’s Science, Technology and Innovation System. State of the Nation. 2008 Source: Council of Canadian Academies,the State of Science & Technology in Canada. 2006

  8. Cdn Assets / Challenges … Source: Statistics Canada data as reported in CAGS (Canadian Association for Graduate Studies) Statistical Report for the years 1980; 1988; 1990-2001 and 1995-2006. 1 Statscan taxonomy changes for fields of study: this estimated figure includes, for 1998, 878 degrees awarded in maths and computer sciences, in engineering and architecture, in natural resources and half of the 1 010 degrees awarded in physical and life sciences 2 Estimated figure including, for 2006, 246 degrees awarded in maths and computer sciences, 735 in engineering and architecture, 144 in natural resources and half of the 1 161 degrees awarded in physical and life sciences.

  9. Evidence-based Impact of S&T / Innovation Policies: The Case of Doctoral Education R & D Intensity All doctorates Doctorates in science and engineering $$$ R&D as % of GDP(2003 or latest available year) Graduation rateat doctorate level, 2002 Graduation rateat doctorate level, 2002

  10. Cdn Assets / Challenges … Sources: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators, 2006; Science,Technology and Innovation Council, Canada’s Science, Technology and Innovation System. State of the Nation. 2008

  11. Cdn Assets / Challenges … Average annual growth of doctoral degrees – 1998-2006 Source: OECD Education database, 2009. L. Auriol, 'Careers of Doctorate Holders: Employment and Mobility Patterns', OECD, Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry, 2010

  12. Canadian Strategy: ‘Building vs Buying’ Graduate Communities? Share of foreign-born among doctoral and tertiary-level graduatesin OECD countries, circa 2000 Source: Database on Immigrants in OECD countries, 2009 L. Auriol, 'Careers of Doctorate Holders: Employment and Mobility Patterns', OECD, Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry, 2010

  13. Number of Doctorate Holders (2006) by Place of Birth and Place of Doctorate Award Source of data: Census of Population 2006. OECD, 2007 OECD/UIS/Eurostat data collection on Careers of doctorate holders.

  14. J.F. Helliwell. 2006. 'Highly Skilled Workers: Build, Share, or Buy?', Ottawa, Government of Canada, Skills Research Initiative Cdn Strategy: ‘Building vs Buying’ Graduate Communities? … • '...century evidence of broadly declining migration rates between Canada and the USA even among those with high level skills.’ • Canadian-born living in the USA: about 20% beginnning of the 20th Century vs about 2% beginning of the 21st Century • Canada's position in northbound/southbound migration flows: a net importer of skills

  15. Key Challenges to survive / perform wellin a SDKP context • Priority to the Building Strategy for Graduate Communities (Including Retention of International Graduates) • Invest in People with Accurate Graduate Training Levels and Relevant Competencies : Priority to PhD Graduates • Strenghten Incentives for Both Fundamental and Decontextualized RD • Stimulate Partnerships Within / Beyond Academia and National / International Clusters • More $$ for Innovative Training Programs and Graduate Student International and Between Organizations Mobility