The Road to War: 1919-1939
The Versailles Treaty • Germany • Blamed for war • Lost colonies • New countries formed out theirs • Paid (war debts) reparations
The Ineffectiveness of the League of Nations • No control of major conflicts. • No progress in disarmament. • No effective military force.
league LEAGUE OF NATIONS Afghanistan—1934 Luxembourg--1920 Albania—1920 (taken over by Italy Mexico--1930 in 1939) Netherlands Argentina New Zealand Australia Nicaragua (withdrew, 1936) Austria (taken over by Germany Norway In 1938) Panama Belgium Paraguay (withdrew, 1936) Bolivia Persia Brazil (withdrew, 1926) Peru (withdrew,1939) Bulgaria---1920 Poland Canada Portugal Chile (withdrew, 1938) Romania (withdrew, 1940) China (invaded by Japan, 1937) Siam Colombia Spain (withdrew, 1939) Costa Rica—1920, withdrew, 1925 Sweden Cuba Switzerland Czechoslovakia Turkey--1932 Denmark Union of South Africa Dominican Republic—1924 USSR—1934, expelled, 1939 Ecuador—1934 United Kingdom Egypt—1937 Uruguay El Salvador (withdrew, 1937) Venezuela (withdrew, 1938) Estonia—1921 Yugoslavia Ethiopia—1923 (taken over by Italy in 1936) Finland—1920 France Germany--1926, withdrew, 1933 Greece Guatemala (withdrew, 1936) Haiti (withdrew, 1942) Honduras, (withdrew, 1936) Hungary—1922, withdrew, 1939 India Iraq—1932 Ireland—1923 Italy (withdrew, 1937) Japan (withdrew, 1933) Latvia—1921 Liberia Lithuania—1921
Problems in Europe After WWI • Great Depression • Economic = people were jobless • Political = weak governments could not solve problems in their countries --> led people to turn to dictators or Socialist leaders • Social = times of unrest people look for a leader.
International Agreements • Several attempts by U.S. to get countries to agree to disarming • Washington Disarmament Conference • Geneva Convention • Treaties with Japan • Kellog-Briand Pact – 1928 • Makes war illegal as a tool of diplomacy • No enforcement provisions
dictators TOTALITARIAN DICTATORS • Power of government rests in one man. • TOTAL POWER • No freedoms in this society….. • Usually racist and discriminatory towards certain groups…… • Often have large militaries and must expand and conquer to gain approval from their people.
dictators TOTALITARIAN DICTATORS Totalitarian dictators came to power during the 1920s and 1930s in Europe. Adolph Hitler Benito Mussolini Joseph Stalin COMMUNISM, FASCISM AND NAZISM that developed in Europe at this time are considered TOTALITARIAN DICTATORSHIPS
nazism • NAZISM AND FASCISM:a philosophy or system of government that advocates or exercises a dictatorship, state control of industry, racial superiority, supremacy of the leader,limits civil rights, and an ideology of nationalism, militarism and expansion • Opposite of democracy and capitalism • NAZISM: STANDS FOR NATIONAL SOCIALISTIC PARTY……A TOTALITARIAN DICTATORSHIP----GERMANY. • FACISM: BASED ON A SYMBOL OF AUTHORITY IN THE OLD ROMAN EMPIRE…A TOTALITARIAN DICTATORSHIP----ITALY
dictators TOTALITARIAN DICTATORS • Joseph Stalin • 1921/Soviet Union Communism • Spread Communism throughout the world • Stalin maneuvered himself into becoming the leader of the Soviet Union. • The Russian Revolution was led by the people to overthrow a monarch but when the new ruling class took over, there were no protections of people’s rights…… “NO BILL OF RIGHTS” • Communism and fascism are similar in their ideologies
dictators TOTALITARIAN DICTATORS • Benito Mussolini • 1922/Italy---Facism • Believe, Obey and Fight Benito Mussolini gained power in Italy both by advocating the popular idea of Italian conquest in East Africa and by terrorizing those who opposed him. • Once appointed prime minister by the king, Mussolini, calling himself Il Duce, suspended elections, outlawed other political parties, and established a dictatorship. • Mussolini’s rule improved the ailing Italian economy. Under Mussolini, the Italian army successfully conquered the African nation of Ethiopia in May 1936.
The Rise of Adolph Hiler • Born in Austria • Fought in WWI and was bitter towards the Treaty of Versailles
The Rise of Adolph Hiler • An Austrian painter, hated the way the Versailles Treaty humiliated Germany and stripped it of its wealth and land. • After the war his job in the army was to keep tabs on different political parties. • Discovers a small political party known as The National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZI) • Begins to work himself into the leadership positions of the Nazi party • The Nazi Party: Hitler joined and soon led the Nazi Party in Germany.
The Beer Hall Putsch: 1923 November 1923 - The "Beer Hall Putsch:” Hitler and the Nazis try to overthrow the local government of Munich, Germany.
The Rise of Adolph Hitler • It fails and Hitler is arrested. • He is convicted 1924 and serves 9 months out of a 5-year sentence. • Hitler writes his book Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”) or outlining his political struggles. • His book was not taken seriously at first, but eventually becomes popular and includes many of the ideas the Nazis put in practice in the 1930s and 1940s. • After his release from prison, he continued to work with the Nazi party to take over Germany.
Hitler’s Rise to Power: 1919 to 1933 • In this Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”), he proposed that Germany defy the Versailles Treaty by rearming and reclaiming lost land. • He also blamed minority groups, especially Jews, for Germany’s weaknesses. • Hitler Becomes Chancellor: Between 1930 and 1934, the Nazi Party gained a majority in the Reichstag, the lower house of the German parliament. • Adolph Hitler is appointed chancellor of Germany in 1933 • He moved to suppress many German freedoms and gave himself the title Der Führer, or “the leader.”
TOTALITARIAN DICTATORS • Revenge towards the Treaty of Versailles • Rearm Germany • Take back land lost from WWI He wanted to create a THIRD REICH GERMANY WOULD BECOME THE THIRD WORLD EMPIRE AND UNITE ALL GERMAN SPEAKING NATIONS THAT WOULD RULE THE WORLD FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS. dictators
NAZISM • Form: A cross with four equal arms, each bent at a right angle. • Word: From the Sanskrit word svastika, “creating well-being.” • History: An ancient Aryan symbol of the sun Importance:Hitler adopted the swastika as its symbol with the aim of making a connection between the ancient Aryans and the modern German people. In making this connection, the Nazis tried to support their claim that the modern German people were a “master race.” reich
NAZISM dictators • The Nazis used a political police • the Gestapo • the SS corps • Propaganda to gain total power. • Anti-Nazi leaders were arrested. • Violated the privacy of postal and telephonic communications. • Nazis did not need search warrants for house searches or for confiscating or restricting private property.
FREEDOMS LOST FREEDOMS LOST • FREEDOM OF SPEECH GONENAZI’S CENSORED WHAT YOU COULD READ. • DUE PROCESS ELIMINATEDCOULD BE ARRESTED WITHOUT PROBABLE CAUSE • NO TRIAL BY JURYNAZI’S PRACTICED RACISMAND PERSECUTION TOWARDS THE JEWS. • PEOPLE WERE STRIPPED OF THEIR CIVIL RIGHTS...
Two Phases of Hatred • Phase 1 1933-1939 • A Common Enemy : Re-Education • Citizenship Rights? • German Jews face deportation • Violence Escalates----Kristalnacht • Phase 2 (1939-1945) • World War II begins vs. France/England • Holocaust Begins--- The Final Solution • Ghettos and Forced Labor Camps • mass executions of Jews and Eastern Europeans. • Einzsengruben death squads • Gas Chamber
ANTI-SEMITISM • German Propaganda against the Jews. • "The Jew: The inciter of war, the pro-longer of war."
ANTI-SEMITISM German children were taught in school that Jews were inferior.
Nuremberg Laws • Nazi Government Policy of Anti-Semitism • Purity of German blood was essential to the existence of the German people and nation. • Nuremberg Laws passed in 1935 provided legal basis. • Millions of Jews died in German concentration camps.
Nuremberg Laws 1. Marriages between Jews and citizens of German blood are forbidden. 2. Sexual relations outside marriage between Jews and German blood are forbidden. 3. Jews will not be permitted to employ female citizens of German blood as servants. 4. Jews are forbidden to display the Reich and national flag or the national colors. nuremberg
Nuremberg Laws 5. Jewish children and German were segregated. 6. The right to citizenship is acquired by the granting of Reich citizenship papers. 7. Only the citizen of the Reich enjoys full political rights in accordance of the laws. 8. A citizen of the Reich is of German blood and who shows that he is both desirous and fit to serve the German people and Reich faithfully. nuremberg
KRISTALNACHT • The first organized night of Nazi violence against German JewsNov. 8 - 9, 1938 • Thousands arrested, including college professors, writers, doctors, etc. • Jewish businesses, stores, homes and synagogues burned all through Germany and other German Occupied countries • Nazi violence against German Jews led to thousands hurt and many deaths…..
The Night of Broken Glass KRISTALNACHT Violence Escalates With Systematic Invasions
dictators TOTALITARIAN DICTATORS • Took the form of a god • Japan’s Manifest Destiny was to expand into China and the rest of Asia. Emperor Hirohito
dictators TOTALITARIAN DICTATORS • 1931: Japan’s expansionist and military leader • Would threaten United States island possessions and U.S. trade policy into China, (Open Door Policy) Hideki Tojo
The Manchurian Incident • By 1930, Japan lacked the land and raw materials to care for its growing population. Many Japanese saw the acquisition of neighboring Manchuria as a solution to these problems. • In September 1931, a Japanese army stationed in Manchuria captured several cities. By February 1932, the army had seized all of Manchuria. This seizure came to be known as the Manchurian Incident. • Japan set up Manchuria as a puppet state, or a supposedly independent country under the control of a powerful neighbor. • After the Manchurian Incident, the military took a much stronger hand in governing Japan, especially in the area of foreign policy.
1937: U.S. refuses trade with Japan until they withdraw from China • 1940: China invades Indochina • US freezes Japanese assets, refused to trade oil, gasoline, and steel.
Munich Conference MUNICH CONFERENCE • Sudetenland • Part of Germany before WWI. • Treaty of Versailles created Czechoslovakia • 7,450,000 Czechs • 3,200,000 Germans • 2,300,000 Slovaks • 100,000 Poles
Munich Conference MUNICH CONFERENCE • Leaders met in Munich to decide the fate of Czechoslovakia.. • Hitler believed Sudetenland should be part of Germany. • Adolf Hitler--GermanyNeville Chamberlain—EnglandPremier Edouard Deladier---France Benito Mussolini--Italy • Hitler promised the world if he received the Sudetenland, he would no longer expand Germany
MUNICH CONFERENCE • Hitler: “All I want, is a Germany for Germans” • All Chamberlain of Britain wanted was peace at any cost. • Chamberlain believed that by sacrificing Czechoslovakia, he satisfied Hitler, who he believed would stop being aggressive; he promised “a peace with honor… peace in our time.” • FDR even sent a letter to Hitler asking him to honor the Munich Conference • This was called the policy of appeasement(When European powers, including the US, gave into Hitler’s demands)
Munich Conference MUNICH CONFERENCE • Later in 1939, Hitler would invade and take the rest of Czechoslovakia……. • The United States learned from the Munich Conference that you cannot trust the words of a dictator………
What is the cartoonist trying to say here? • What is meant by, “we might as well try to appease him”? • How does the cartoonist justify his decision to appease Hitler? • Notice the American countries……. What is this symbolic of? Umbrella Road
1. 1931---Japan invades Manchuria, WWII begins in Asia 2. 1935---Italy invades Ethiopia 3. 1936---Hitler invades the Rhineland 4. 1937 to 1939---Spanish Civil War 5. 1937---Japan invades China 6. 1938--Hitler takes Sudetenland US and League of Nations demands Japan to get out---Stimson Doctrine L/N demands Italy to get out—No US sell of weapons L/N demands Germany to get out---US Neutrality and refuses to sell arms to Germany US Neutrality----Spain becomes a fascist dictatorship US neutral but demands Japan to withdraw and refuses to sell iron, steel and gasoline products Munich Conference--Great Britain and France give into Hitler, Appeasement US Neutral but FDR writes a letter to Hitler & Mussolini asking them to guarantee no more aggression. U.S RESPONSE TO FASCIST AGGRESSION CHART
7. 1938, Hitler takes Czechoslovakia 8. Sept. 1, 1939, Hitler invades Poland which begins WWII in Europe 9. 1940---Hitler’s inasion of Norway, Denmark, Holland and Belgium 10. 1940---Hitler takes France 11. 1940---Japan’s invades Indochina 12. 1940---Hitler attacks Great Britian Cannot trust “the words of a dictator” Britain & France declare war on Germany on Sept. 1, 1939. US neutral, extends Cash and Carry Policy to Allies US neutral--freezes German assets--begins military buildup US neutral, begins peacetime draft—Selective Service US neutral but demands withdrawal and freezes Japanese money, Property and embargo of oil, iron and steel. US neutral but extends Lend Lease policy to Great Britain—last Democratic Nation—Battle of Britian US becomes the arsenal of democracy U.S RESPONSE TO FASCIST AGGRESSION CHART
13. 1941---Hitler’s invasion of Russia 14. 1941---Japan attacks Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941---Day of Infamy US neutral but extends Lend Lease to Russia…...US & Great Britain draw up war goals in the Atlantic Charter Neutrality is ended and US declares war on Japan, Germany and Italy declare war on US U.S RESPONSE TO FASCIST AGGRESSION CHART Answer the following questions from the chart 1. What was the position the US throughout most of the fascist aggression, Why? 2. What was the position of the League of Nations? Why were they so powerless to stop this aggression? 3. Why is the Munich Conference and appeasement a turning point in preventing war in Europe? Does it work? What “principle” does this set? 4. Name the ways the U.S. tried to avoid war and deal with fascist aggression. 5. Even though the US was neutral, what ways did the US begin to prepare ourselves for war? 6. Which of the U.S. responses to fascist aggression marked the turning point in-moving the nation from neutrality to war? 7. To what extent was the reversal of neutrality in the best interest of the United States?