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Italy Before Unification PowerPoint Presentation
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Italy Before Unification

Italy Before Unification

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Italy Before Unification

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  1. Italy Before Unification

  2. 1858 GiuseppeGaribaldi VictorEmmanuel II1858 1858 Unification of Italy 1866 1860 1870 1860

  3. Child Labor Poverty

  4. Birthplace of Maria Montessori, Chiaravalle, Italy

  5. Allesandro Montessori “…an old fashioned gentleman of conservative temper and military habits.”

  6. Renilde Stoppani “… dedicated to liberation … unusually well educated.”

  7. Maria at 10 yearsself-confident, strong-willed, with a sense of duty“Don’t worry, Mama, I cannot die; I have too much to do.”

  8. One of two girls who studied math and science at Regia Scuola Tecnica Michelangelo Buonarroti

  9. Maria at 17 yearsexcelled in math and biology atRegio Istituto Tecnico Leonardo da Vinci

  10. 1890 - studies pre-medicine at University of Rome1892 - one of the first female medical students1896 - Italian delegate to Int’l Women’s Conference

  11. excluded from all-male medical examinations“Blow away, my friends. The harder you blow, the higher up I shall go.”

  12. “these unhappy little ones”

  13. The “Wild Child” of AveyronCivilize by activating the senses with matching and sorting activities Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard

  14. Edouard Seguin • “Respect for individuality is the first test of a teacher. (This is to be contrasted with) the violent sameness of most education.” • - stages of development • trained children's’ senses • taught children the skills of everyday life • - writing before reading • “I felt that mental deficiency presented chiefly a pedagogical , rather than mainly a medical, problem. These children could be helped by special methods of education.”

  15. Jean Jacques Rousseau1762 Sense experience is the basis of all knowledge. The job of the educator is to assist in a process that is latent within the learner’s mind. The educator must begin by understanding the nature of the child he wants to teach. Educators should remove the artificial restraints of the schoolroom and leave the child … free to learn from his own experience rather than having knowledge imposed from without by the teacher. Train the body and the senses in childhood and the intellect will develop as a matter of course.

  16. Johann Pestalozzi “I seek to pyschologize human education.” All thinking begins with the accurate observation of concrete objects. The curriculum should be centered on the child’s direct experience of things, including physical activities, the making of collections, and going on field trips. Ability groupings are an attempt to allow for individual differences. For each successive stage of learning, formal exercises should be provided, moving from the simple to the complex, from the concrete to the abstract, in both mathematical symbols and language.

  17. Creator of the “kindergarten” All education is basically a process of self-activity. The natural endowments of the individual unfold according to the universal laws of organic development. Educators should focus on the child’s experience of the real world, the unfolding of his natural capacities, on learning as a process of self-discovery as the child passes through successive stages of development. This process of self-fulfillment through self-activity is possible only where the adult does not interfere with the child’s spontaneous activity, providing guidance, rather than coercion. Friedrich Froebel1837

  18. 1897-1900Studies pedagogy Co-directs (w/ Giuseppe Montesano) the Orthophrenic School for Teachers of the Mentally Deficient

  19. Pedagogic School, University of Rome (1904) (Montessori’s vision was that) “pedagogy would be derived by an experimental method from the anthropological observation of children in the laboratory of the school.” - Rita Kramer “In order to educate, it is essential to know those who are to be educated.” “…the school, and through it the society, could be reformed by means of the scientific trend which pedagogy is today acquiring through the study of the pupil. The teacher must assume the new task of repairing what is wrong with the child.” “The perfect teacher must possess something more than physical beauty and acquired art. …The words (must) seem, as if by magic, to touch the profoundest recesses of the heart. Hypnotists and magicians! Conquerers of souls. Valiant souls themselves; souls with a great mission.”

  20. 1907 - Casa dei Bambini, Rome

  21. Exercises of practical life

  22. 1908 - Casa for earthquake orphans Messina, Italy

  23. “If a new and scientific pedagogy is to arise from the study of the individual, such study much occupy itself with the observation of free children.”

  24. First Montessori school in America, Tarrytown, NY, 1911

  25. Alexander Graham Bell familyFounders of Montessori Education Association, 1913

  26. Thomas and Mina EdisonEarly supporters of Montessori in America

  27. 1913 - Maria Montessori tours America with Sam McClure

  28. Robert McClure Travelled to Italy to offer Montessori Center in NewYork

  29. Gilbert Grosvenorw/ Elsie May Bell and their son, Melville Bell

  30. Panama-Pacific International Exhibition Oakland, California, 1915

  31. Montessori wins both gold medals for education with glass-walled classroom

  32. Dr. Montessori speaks at the exhibition Dr. Montessori teaches and starts school, LA (Mario, 17, joins her work.)

  33. Montessori’s “little family”

  34. William Heard Kilpatrick

  35. Montessori’s ideas were based on outmoded derivations of Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Froebel…based on a narrow view of the function of the school and dependent on a set of too-limited devices. She had the spirit, but not the content of modern science. The lack of free play and stories was a lamentable defect. Montessori materials were based on so erroneous a psychology, that we must reject the apparatus. • William Heard Kilpatrick • Teachers’ College, Columbia

  36. London, 1919

  37. Montessori receiving honorary doctorate from Durham University, 1923

  38. Benito Mussolini