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WHITETAIL DEER

WHITETAIL DEER

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WHITETAIL DEER

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  1. WHITETAIL DEER

  2. DESCRIPTION • 3-3 1/2 feet tall • weight: 150 lbs (largest buck was 425lbs)

  3. color shading changes twice a year • spring - new coat is bright reddish brown • fall/winter - hair is blueish to grayish-brown

  4. albinism - genetic change that prevents pigments from forming in body • hair is white, eyes pink, hooves gray

  5. Albinism (cont.) - more common is partial albinos - usually have hearing deficiency - normal deer avoid them

  6. walk on toenails, not toes, which allows them to move fast on well packed earth • have 32 teeth

  7. 4 glands • interdigital gland - between hooves • metatarsal gland - between hooves and heel on hind leg • tarsal gland - inside leg on hock • lachrymal gland- front of eye

  8. ruminants: 4 compartment stomach

  9. DISTRIBUTION • found everywhere in WI • from middle Canada to southern US

  10. TRAVEL • tend to move only in a 1 sq mile area • do not migrate - will starve to death, refuse to leave home range

  11. HABITS • buck lives separate from doe/offspring except during rut • usually start to feed at 4:30pm till 7am

  12. creatures of habit - if not bothered will follow same routine, trails, etc. - will shift pattern due to weather and food availability

  13. require 10-12 lbs of food to satisfy needs • herbivores • startled deer will run to nearest cover, then stop to see if followed

  14. BREEDING • bucks lose antlers in december/jan. • doe’s estrus cycle is in Oct. -heat period of 30 hours; come into heat every 28 days

  15. BIRTH AND YOUNG • gestation period is 200-210 days • fawns born late May or June

  16. fawns weigh 4 1/2 to 8 lbs at birth • does leave fawns and come back to nurse 5-8 times/day • at 3-4 weeks fawn will go with doe

  17. LIFE SPAN • life span of 8-11 year • most bucks killed before 5 yrs • does fertility decreases after age 9

  18. SENSES • smell - greatest sense • hearing - flicker ears to get sound • sight - quick to notice slight movements

  19. COMMUNICATION • fawn - bleats like a lamb • older deer sound like hoarse raspy sheep

  20. stamp feet when nervous which causes vibrations in ground • signal danger by flashing white hair on rump

  21. LOCOMOTION • top speed is about 40 mph • can clear up to 8 feet from standing position

  22. can jump 28 ft in length • will seek water if they can’t out run predator - good swimmers

  23. ENEMIES • original predators - mountain lion and wolf • today - man and dogs

  24. parasites • external: lice, fleas, mosquitoes, wood ticks • internal: lungworms, footworms, liver flukes, and tapeworms