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Properties of Matter

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  1. Properties of Matter

  2. Matter • Anything that has mass and takes up space • Matter can take many forms and is not always visible to the eye • Matter can change form

  3. Everything in the universe is made of matter • Energy, thoughts, feelings, ideas, sounds, light, heat, and emotions are not matter

  4. Matter is made of atoms • Matter can neither be created nor destroyed; it just changes form - Law of Conservation of Matter

  5. Atoms • Tiny particles that make up matter • They are so small that 1 million atoms lined up side by side are equal to the thickness of a human hair

  6. “atom” comes from a Greek word that means “cannot be divided” • Atoms are the smallest unit of matter that has the identity of the matter

  7. Atoms are in turn made of protons, electrons, and neutrons • Protons, electrons, and neutrons are called subatomic particles

  8. Proton • Positively charged particle • Located in the nucleus of an atom

  9. Electron • Negatively charged particle • Located outside the nucleus of an atom

  10. Neutron • Neutral particle, no charge • Located in the nucleus of an atom

  11. Types of Matter - Elements • Most kinds of matter are made of combinations of a basic group of building blocks called elements • Element - matter made up of only one type of atom • There are about 116 different elements

  12. Compounds • Compounds are matter made up of different kinds of elements, chemically bonded together

  13. Compounds • When elements combine to make compounds, the new substance has properties that are different from the properties of the elements that made it.

  14. Compounds • Na (sodium) is a very reactive metal and Cl (chlorine) is a poisonous gas • NaCl is table salt and tastes delicious on potato chips!

  15. Chemical Formula • Uses symbols and numbers to represent the elements found in a substance and the number of each of those elements • Every element has a 1 to 3 letter symbol to represent the element, use the Periodic Table to match the symbol with the element

  16. Chemical Formula - examples • NaOH – Has 1 atom of Na (sodium), 1 atom of O (oxygen) and 1 atom of H (hydrogen) This is the formula for sodium hydroxide • C6H12O6 – Has 6 atoms of C (carbon), 12 atoms of H (hydrogen) and 6 atoms of O (oxygen) This is the formula for glucose.

  17. Identifying Elements and Compounds • Elements and compounds can be identified by their properties • Scientists must do different tests to identify elements and compounds correctly

  18. Identifying Elements and Compounds • It can take several tests and it helps to compare unknowns with known examples • Sometimes scientists also need to study the atomic and subatomic structures of matter to make a correct identification

  19. Identifying Elements and Compounds • There is no simple test to tell whether a substance is an element or a compound

  20. Properties • Characteristics or features of a substance • Substance – a general term for a compound or element (a fancy word for “stuff”)

  21. Physical Properties • Characteristics of a substance that can be measured or observed without changing the identity of the substance

  22. Physical Properties: examples • Size • Shape • Texture • Color • Density • State of Matter (solid, liquid, gas)

  23. Physical Properties: Density • Compares the mass of something to how much space it takes up • Density = mass/volume • To calculate density, divide the mass of an object by its volume • Units for density: g/mL or g/cm3

  24. Physical Properties: Density • Density is a property that can be used to identify a substance • If you know the density of an unknown substance, you can compare it to a list of densities of known substances and find a match

  25. Link to a site with short lessons about density • http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/multimedia/chapter3/lesson1

  26. Physical properties: Solubility • Solubility – ability of one substance to dissolve in another (usually a solid in a liquid) • Soluble substances form solutions

  27. Physical properties: Miscibility • Miscibility – ability of one liquid to mix with or dissolve in another liquid • Immiscible liquids don’t mix • Less dense liquid floats on the denser liquid

  28. Chemical Properties of Matter • A characteristic of a substance that allows it to change into a new substance • Characteristics that relate to the atomic or elemental composition of substances

  29. Chemical Properties of Matter – Examples • Examples of chemical properties: flammability (ability to burn), • ability to react with oxygen, • reactivity (how easily one thing reacts with another), or • toxicity (how poisonous something is)

  30. Link to a site with short lessons about pH • http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/multimedia/chapter6/lesson8 • Lessons 8-10

  31. pH • pH is a scale used by scientists to measure the acidity or basicity of a substance • pH 7 is neutral • pH 1 up to pH 7 is acidic • pH greater than 7 up to pH 14 is basic

  32. pH • pH is a chemical property • pH is used to predict chemical reactions or to select compounds for specific chemical reactions • Acids and bases are reactive compounds

  33. Physical and Chemical Changes

  34. Physical Changes • Any change in size, shape, form, or state of matter • The makeup of the matter stays the same, only the physical properties change

  35. Examples of Physical Changes • Physical weathering • Cutting or breaking something • Change in state of matter

  36. Changes in State of Matter • Solid to liquid – melting • Liquid to gas – evaporating or boiling • Gas to liquid – condensation • Liquid to solid – freezing or solidifying

  37. Chemical Changes • Any change where one or more of the original materials changes into a new material • They can take place quickly or slowly (rusting)

  38. Signs of chemical changes • Heat or light can be released

  39. Signs of chemical changes • A new substance can be formed – a gas is released, a solid or liquid forms

  40. More signs of chemical changes • Sometimes heat (energy) is absorbed • Sometimes a color change happens

  41. Link to a site with short lessons about chemical reactions • http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/multimedia/chapter6/lesson1 • Lessons 1-7