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Banks create money!!

Banks create money!!

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Banks create money!!

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  1. Banks create money!! Remember that bank deposits are money. Banks create bank deposits when they make loans.

  2. Creating a Bank • To create a bank, you will need to go through the following 8 steps: • Obtain a charter to operate a commercial bank. • Raise some financial capital. • Buy some equipment and computer programs. • Accept deposits • Establish a reserve account at a Federal Reserve Bank • Clear checks • Buy government securities • Make loans

  3. Raising financial capital Virtual College Bank’s Balance Sheet #1 A bank charter has been obtained, and Virtual College Bank has been able to raise $200,000 from private individuals.

  4. Buying equipment Virtual College Bank’s Balance Sheet #2 Virtual College Bank uses its financial resources to purchase servers, database, software, etc.

  5. Accepting deposits Virtual College Bank’s Balance Sheet #3 Virtual College Bank accepts $120,000 in new deposits.

  6. Establishing a Reserve Account Virtual College Bank’s Balance Sheet #4 We assume the required reserve ratio is 25 percent. Thus, Virtual College Bank initially has required reserves of $30,000 ($120,000 × .25) excess reserves of$90,000

  7. Clearing checks • Virtual College depositor Jay writes a check for $20,000 to buy some computers from Hal’s PCs. • Hal’s PCs has a checking account with first American Bank. • Virtual College and First American Banks are both located in the Dallas Federal Reserve district. • The Dallas FED facilitates the check clearing process.

  8. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas (a) Change in Dallas Fed’s balance sheet First American Bank (b) Change in First American Bank’s balance sheet Virtual College Bank (C) Change in Virtual College Bank’s balance sheet

  9. Buying Government Securities • Virtual college Banks wishes to purchase $60,000 in government securities. • First American Bank wishes to sell $60,000 in government securities. • Virtual College pays for the securities with a check.

  10. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas (a) Change in Dallas Fed’s balance sheet First American Bank (b) Change in First American Bank’s balance sheet Virtual College Bank (C) Change in Virtual College Bank’s balance sheet

  11. Making Loans Banks may make loans in amounts up to, but not exceeding, their holding of excess reserves.

  12. Virtual College Bank’s Balance Sheet #5 • With a .25 required reserve ratio and $100,000 in checkable deposits, this bank has required reserves of $25,000. • Excess Reserves = Total Reserves – Required Reserves.Thus for this bank:Excess Reserves = $40,000 - $25,000 = $15,000

  13. Now Virtual College Bank makes $15,000 in loans. The bank credits the accounts of loan recipients by $15,000. Keep in the mind that the loans are an asset for the bank.

  14. Virtual College Bank’s Balance Sheet #6 • After the loans are made and the new deposits (money) are created, required reserves are $28,750 ($115,000 × .25). • The bank now has excess reserves = $11, 250. Why not make more loans?

  15. Virtual College Bank can anticipate that borrowers will quickly spend their loans by drawing checks on accounts at the bank. The bank must be prepared for these withdrawals.

  16. Virtual College Bank’s Balance Sheet #7 • Once borrowers have spent their loans, and checks have cleared, checkable deposits have decreased by $15,000 to $100,000. • Virtual College Bank “made good” on the checks by drawing on its reserve account at the FED. • Excess reserves are now equal to zero. • Virtual College Bank still has loans outstanding of $15,000

  17. Multiple Creation of Bank Deposits • The following illustration of the mechanics of multiple deposit creation is based on the following assumptions: • Initially, all banks are “loaned up”—that is, have zero excess reserves. • The required reserve ratio is 25 percent (or .25). • Proceeds of all checks written are re-deposited in the banking system

  18. Steps in the process • Tony Soprano deposits $100,000 in cash into a checking account at Virtual College Bank. The transaction creates a $75,000 excess reserve for Virtual College Bank. • Virtual College Bank makes a $75,000 loan to Amy. • Amy writes a check for $75,000 to purchase a copy-shop franchise from Barb. • Barb deposits a $75,000 check into her account at First American Bank. This transaction creates a $56,250 excess reserve for First American.

  19. First American makes a $56,250 loan to Bob. • Bob writes a check for $56,250 to Carl to pay off a business loan. • Carl deposits the check for $56,250 into his account at Fleet PC. This transaction creates a $42,187 excess reserve for Fleet PC. • Fleet PC makes a loan for $42,187 to Emelda. • Emelda writes a check for $42,187 to Acme Inc. for restaurant equipment. • Acme Inc. deposits the check for $42, 187 into its account at First e-bank. This transaction creates a $31,640 excess reserve for First e-bank. • And so on and so on . . .

  20. The running tally The sequence Round Reserves Loans Deposits Deposit$100,000 • Virtual College Reserve$25,000 Loan$75,000 $25,000 $75,000 $100,000 Deposit$75,000 • First American Reserve$18,750 Loan$56,250 $43,750 $131,250 $175,000 Deposit$56,250 Reserve$14,063 Loan$42,187 • Fleet PC $57,813 $173,437 $231,250

  21. The running tally The sequence Round Reserves Loans Deposits Deposit$42,187 • First e-bank Reserve$10,547 Loan$31,640 $68,360 $205,077 $273,437     andso on . . .      $100,000 $300,000 $400,000

  22. The process summarized Notice that at each stage of the process the loan is 75 percent (0.75) of the previous loan and the deposit is 75 percent (0.75) of the previous deposit. Let L denote this proportion. Thus the sequence is described by: The total change in deposits when the process is complete is given by: Initial change in reserves

  23. Do the math

  24. The Deposit Multiplier The deposit multiplier is the number by which an increase in bank reserves is multiplied to find the resulting increase in bank deposits. That is: Change in deposits = Deposit multiplier × Change in reserves The deposit multiplier is linked to the required reserve ratio by the following equation 1 Deposit Multiplier = Required reserve ratio

  25. Open Market Operations Now we will illustrate how FED open market operations impact the reserve positions of commercial banks—and hence their ability to make loans and create money.

  26. When the FED buys securities on the open market, it pays for them with newly created bank reserves. We will illustrate how it works.

  27. FED Buys Securities • Suppose the FED buys $100 million is securities from Manhattan Commercial Bank. What happens then? • The Manhattan commercial bank has $100 million less in securities, and the FED has $100 million more in securities. • To pay for the securities, the FED increases Manhattan Commercial Bank’s reserve account at the New York FED by $100 million.

  28. The FED Buys Securities From a Commercial Bank Federal Reserve Bank of New York The FED buys securitiesfrom a commercial bank . . . . . .and pays for the securities by increasing the reserves of the commercial bank . Manhattan Commercial Bank

  29. The Multiplier Effect of an Open Market Operation • An open market purchase creates excess reserves. • Banks lend excess reserves. • Bank deposits increase. • The quantity of money increases. • New money is used to make payments. • Some of the new money is held as currency. • Some of the new money remains in deposits at the bank. • Banks’ required reserves increase • Excess reserves decrease but remain positive.

  30. A Round in the Multiplier Process Following an Open Market Operation Banks lend excess reserves Excess reserves Banks deposits increase Open market purchase Quantity of money increases Excess reserves Money that remains in deposits New money used to make payments Required reserves increase Currency drain

  31. The Money Multiplier This version of the multiplier takes into account cash drains: The monetary base consists of bank reserves and currency in circulation. Thus we have: The total amount of new money created by as a result of an open market operation is described by Money multiplier

  32. What is L? Where C is the proportion of new money that is held as currency and R is the required reserve ratio. In our example, C = 0.33 and R = .10. Thus: Notice that, the value of L is inversely related to the values of C and R

  33. Do the math