Basics of Crop Production Pest Management
Pest Control Goals • Prevention - goal when pest presence or abundance can be predicted • Suppression - goal is to reduce pest population to an acceptable level • Eradication - rare goal, difficult to achieve, more common indoors and controlling foreign pests
Types of Pests Insects Mites Bacteria Fungi Viruses Nematodes Weeds Wildlife Climate Man-made
Pest Identification • As a producer, you need to be familiar with the pests that you are likely to encounter. • You need to know: - the physical features of the pests - their development and biology - characteristics of their damage - what your control goal is
You all know what the cricket looks and sounds like. 4 5 1 6 2 3 Insects have six legs; let’s count them on this cricket.
This carpenter ant clearly shows the three body parts of the insect. Abdomen Thorax Head
How long have insects been here on Earth? • Insects were here long before the dinosaurs, over 250 million years ago. • Fossils of insects show many different types of insects. Some can still be found today.
Fossil records show that this insect has been around a long time. What is it? Dragonfly (some had wingspans of 3 ft.)
Complete Life Cycle Larva and adult are different
Imported Cabbage Worm • This is an example of a complete life cycle. • You have seen, and eaten this worm in broccoli, cabbage, and kale. Larvae Adult
This monarch butterflyshowsthe stages of its life. Pupa See the butterfly? Larva Caterpillar Adult
These insect larvae will make a silk nest in trees in the spring. Eastern Tent Caterpillar
This insect is another web builder in our trees. Fall Webworm It builds its nests in late summer at the end of tree branches. N E S T
This is a serious pest of our forests in the region. Gypsy Moth People often confuse the tent caterpillar with the gypsy moth. The gypsy moth doesn’t spin a silk nest. Adult Larva Egg Mass
Incomplete Life Cycle Nymph and adult look the same.
Have you seen this relative of this grasshopper. What is it? Katydid It’s here!
These are some of the oldest insects in the world. What are they? Cockroaches
Talk about annoying, this insect is a real pest. What is it? Mosquito They will suck blood from their victims andcan carry diseases like West Nile Virus..
Some of our more favorite insects are beneficial. What is the orange beetle below? The ladybird beetle adult and larvae will eat aphids, helping to control this plant pest. Ladybird Beetle Larva Ladybird Beetle Adult Aphids
Arachnids include spiders, ticks, scorpions, and mites. Ticks suck blood from their victims and can spread diseases such as Lyme Disease. Brown Dog Tick Abdomen 1 5 2 6 Arachnids are different from insects in that they have eight legs and two body parts. 3 4 7 8 Head
These are our two problem ticks. Deer Tick Wood Tick
I’m sure that you recognize this beautiful spider. Black Widow Spider This is a very venomous spider thatcan inflict a very painful bite. Red Hourglass
This is the other dangerous spider besides the black widow in the USA. Brown Recluse Spider They are found in the southern states and are brought here when items are moved or shipped north. They are shy and reclusive, preferring closets and out-of-the-way places.
Why Control Weeds? • Some have been declared noxious weeds by the State. It’s the law! • Weeds look bad, they reflect poorly on your management.
Why control weeds? • Weeds reduce the desirable plant population. • Weeds reduce overall forage quality and yield. • Weeds reduce overall animal yield.
Disease is another pest management concern. Alfalfa Phytophthora Root Rot
Disease Alfalfa Bacterial Wilt
Disease Alfalfa Anthracnose
Disease Southern Corn Leaf Blight
Disease Northern Corn Leaf Blight Southern Leaf Blight
Disease Diplodia Ear Rot
Disease Corn Smut
Disease Wheat Powdery Mildew
Disease Wheat Yellow Rust
Disease Wheat Take-all
What are these snakes?They are scary looking, are they dangerous? Black Rat Snakes They are non-venomous and are good snakes to have around the farm. Baby Black Rat Snake
This is how snakes eat their food. All snakes swallow their food whole. There are no vegetarian snakes. Excuse me, I can’t talk with my mouth full.