Revolutions in Latin America (19c - Early 20c)
Causes of Latin AmericanRevolutions • Enlightenment Ideas writings of John Locke, Voltaire, & Jean Rousseau; Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine. • Creole discontent at being left out of government jobs and trade concessions. • Inspiration of American and French Revolutions. • Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal in fighting the Napoleonic Wars.
1. Enlightenment Ideas • Laws of nature [NATURAL LAWS] govern natural science and human society. • Give people rights life, liberty, property! • Make fair societies based on reason. • Challenged the theory of “Divine Right” monarchy.
2. Creole Discontent • Creole elites– born descendants of the Europeans who became permanent inhabitants of Latin America • Peninsulars – Spanish and Portuguese officials who resided temporarily in Latin America for political and economic gain and then returned to their mother countries • The Creole elites resented the Peninsulars who dominated Latin America and drained the Americas of their wealth
3. Inspiration of American & French Revolutions Declaration of the Rights of Man & of the Citizen, 1789 Declaration of Independence, 1776
4. Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal In Fighting Napoleonic Wars Napoleon overthrew the monarchies of Spain and Portugal – authority in their colonial empires was severely weakened.
Napoleon on the March Provides a model & a diversion! The force of Nationalism
*Toussaint L’Ouveture(Too-San Loo-vurTOOR) leads a Revolution in Haiti (ends in 1804) Slave rebellion in Haiti – leads to an Independent Haiti More than 100,000 black slaves rose in revolt
Napoleon sent a French army to crush the rebellion in Haiti • Toussaint tricked into surrendering in 1802; he was shipped to France where he died a year later in a dungeon • French troops weakened by yellow fever; eventually fell to the rebel forces
*SimónBolivar: The “Brains" of the Revolution • Creole leader of the revolutions in Venezuela. • Spent time in Europe and the newly-independent United States. • Won victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817-1822, led to the independent state of Gran Colombia
*Jose de San Martin– Leader of movements United Republic of Rio de la Plata; leads to independence by 1816; later led independence movements in Chile and Peru • Argentine Republic –Replaced the state of Buenos Aires in 1862 as a result of a compromise between centralists and federalists
The “Muscle” of the Revolution Bolivar coming from the North. José de St. Martínand Bernard O’Higgins cross the Andes Mountains (south).
Bolivar’s Accomplishment • Gran Colombia – Existed as an independent state until 1830 when Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador became separate independent nations
Bolivar’s Failure • After uniting Venezuela, Columbia, & Ecuador into Gran Columbia, he left to help free the rest of Latin America. • He died a year later, with his goal of uniting all of South America unfulfilled!
Latin American States After the Revolutions • *Caudillos– Leaders in independent Latin America who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized the national government
The Colonial Class System Creoles – Europeans - Born in the Americans Peninsulares – Born in Spain or Portugal Mestizos – Mixed – Native Indians - European Mulattos – Mixed – Blacks - European The great differences in status based on color – created outcaste and rebellions Native Indians Black Slaves
Mexican War of Independence • Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 16, 1810. The Mexican War of Independence movement was led by Mexican-born Spanish, and mestizos who sought independence from Spain. It started as an idealistic peasants' rebellion against their colonial masters, but finally ended as an unlikely alliance between liberales (liberals) and conservadores (conservatives). • Agustín de Iturbide, A favorite of the Mexican church hierarchy, Iturbide was the personification of conservative Creole values, devoutly religious, and committed to the defense of property rights and social privileges became the first emperor.
Miguel de Hidalgo – 1810 – a parish priest roused the Indians and Mestizos – revolted – after early victories he lost Creole support and was executed • September 16, the first day of the uprising, is Mexico’s Independence Day • Conservative Creoles under Augustin Iturbide (ee-toor-BEE-day) won independence, first emperor in 1821- Emperor Agustin • Mexico became a republic in 1824 – “el Grito de Dolores” – The cry of Dolores – Mexicans to fight for independence and Liberty.
Results of the Latin American Revolutions
1. Brazil Freed from Portugal • **The Portuguese royal family escaped Napoleon by fleeing to Brazil. • Pedro I set up a new, independent kingdom in 1821 when his father returned to Portugal. • Pedro II assumed full power after Pedro I abdicated his throne.
2. Independence for Spanish & Portuguese Latin America • By the mid-1820s, revolts create many newly-independent nations. • Toussaint L’Ouveture – Haiti • Bolívar, San Martín, & O’Higgins in: Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Peru, Bolivia, the United Provinces of Central America, and Gran Columbia!
3. No Unity! • Failure of Bolivar’s dream for a united South America: • Many newly independent countries struggle with civil wars. • By 1830s, geographic factors (mts., the Amazon, etc.) plus cultural differences defeated attempts at unification. • Gran Columbia. • United Provinces of Central America.
4. Independence Brought More Poverty • The wars disrupted trade. • The wars devastated the cities and the countryside.
5. Left Many Countries in the Control of Caudillos • WHO WERE THEY?: • Mid-19c dictators military authoritarianism. • **Mostly wealthy creole aristocrats. • Immediately followed the fight for independence. • Posed as reformers with goals to improve the economy and better the lives of the common people.
5. Left Many Countries in the Control of Caudillos • WHO WERE THEY?: • BUT…Overthrew governments and took away basic human rights. • Some attempted to make improvements, but most just cared about themselves and their families and friends [nepotism]. • Power changes usually occurred at bayonet-point [coup d’etats!]
Additional Problems Feuds among leaders. Geographic barriers. The social hierarchy continued from the past. Conservatives favored the old social order. Liberals wanted land reform. Dependence on foreign nations for capital and for economic investments.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna – Mexican general who seized power after the collapse of the Mexican republic in 1835 • Mexican-American War – (1846-1848) – Devastating defeat for Mexican forces • **Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848) – Treaty between the United States and Mexico; Mexico lost one-half of its national territory (Mexico forced to sign)
Maximilian von Habsburg – Austrian archduke proclaimed emperor of Mexico as a result of French intervention in 1862 ; after the French withdrawal he was executed in 1867 by Juarez’s firing squad • Benito Juarez-Indian Lawyer who led a liberal revolution against Santa Anna; defeated by the French, who made Maximilian emperor; returned to power from 1867-1872 • Porfirio Diaz –One of Juarez’s generals ; elected president of Mexico in 1876 and dominated polities for 35 years
Cause of the Mexican Revolution 1910? • Porfirio Diaz (dictatorial reign)– ruled Mexico form 1876-1910 – conservative , centralize government with support of army, large landowners, Catholic Church • Real wages of workers declined • Liberal landowner – Francesco Madero led a series of strikes throughout the country. He forced Diaz from power and open the door to a wider revolution
Mexico Revolution – 1910-1920 • Emiliano Zapata – aroused the masses of landless peasants and seized the estates of the wealthy landholders • 1910-1920 – Revolution caused untold damages to the Mexican economy • The country broke into many different factions and guerilla units roamed the country • Eventually, Venusians Carranza rose to the presidency and organized a Constitution in 1917 • During this time the dominate political Party PRI came to power.
Mexican Revolutionaries EmilianoZapata Pancho Villa VenustianoCarranza Francisco I Madero Porfirio Diaz
Emiliano Zapata • Poncho Villa – Indian lawyer and revolutionary worked with Zapata of bring reform to Mexico
Monroe Doctrine– United States declaration of 1823, which stated that any attempt by a European country to colonize the Americas would be considered an unfriendly act • Manifest Destiny–Belief that the United States was destined to rule from the Atlantic to the Pacific
Spanish-American War - 1898 – Cuba became U.S. protectorate and Puerto Rico was annexed outright • In 1903 the US supported a rebellion to enable Panama to separate itself from Colombia • Between 1898-1934 – American military forces were sent to Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, panama, Colombia, Haiti and the Dominican Republic
“The Colossus of the North” US dominated affairs in theAmericas. 1823 – Monroe Doctrine. US takes Texas and Mexican Cession. US gains independence for Cuba. Roosevelt Corollary – US will police the America. US sent troops to Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua. US built Panama Canal – “Yankee imperialism.”
The Panama Canal Panama Canal – The United States supported an independence movement in Panama, then part of Colombia, in return for the exclusive rights for a canal across the Panamanianisthmus
“Big Stick” Foreign Policy • Americans becomes the “Big Bully” from the North – • To protect American business interest - create “Banana Republics” in Central America