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Avoiding Plagiarism :. A journey through Modified APA style of referencing…. E. Hansen Teacher-Librarian. Do you know???. What is Plagiarism ? What is an in-text Citation ? What is a reference list ? What does paraphrasing mean ?. Getting Started…. What is Plagiarism ?
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Avoiding Plagiarism: A journey through Modified APA style of referencing… E. Hansen Teacher-Librarian
Do you know??? • What is Plagiarism? • What is an in-text Citation? • What is a reference list? • What does paraphrasing mean?
Getting Started… • What is Plagiarism? Plagiarism means using another’s work without giving them credit and saying that it is your own From: Mirka, 2004, The Plagiarism Trap. Powerpoint Presentation
Examples of Plagiarism… • Copying and pasting text from online encyclopedias • Copying and pasting text from any web site • Using photographs, video or audio without permission or acknowledgement • Using another student’s or your parents’ work and claiming it as your own even with permission • Using your own work without properly citing it! From: Mirka, 2004, The Plagiarism Trap. Powerpoint Presentation
More Examples of Plagiarism… • Quoting a source without using quotation marks-even if you do cite it • Citing sources you didn’t use • Getting a research paper, story, poem, or article off the Internet • Turning in the same paper for more than one class without the permission of both teachers (this is called self-plagiarism) • Can you think of more? From: Mirka, 2004, The Plagiarism Trap. Powerpoint Presentation
How to Avoid Plagiarism… • Use your own words and ideas • Alwaysgive credit to the source where you have received your information • If you use someone’s exact words - put them in quotes and give credit using in-text citations. Include the source in your references From: Mirka, 2004, The Plagiarism Trap. Powerpoint Presentation
How to Avoid Plagiarism… • If you have paraphrased someone’s work, (summarizing a passage or rearranging the order of a sentence and changing some of the words)-always give credit • Take very good notes--write down the source as you are taking notes. Do not wait until later to try and retrieve the original source • Avoid using someone else’s work with minor “cosmetic” changes From: Mirka, 2004, The Plagiarism Trap. Powerpoint Presentation
Getting Started… • What is a reference list? • A reference list at the end of a paper provides the full information necessary to identify and retrieve each source. It cites works that specifically support a particular article. • References should be alphabetically listed by author’s last name at the end of the paper or presentation. • A bibliography? • A bibliography cites works for background or for further reading.
Getting Started… • What is a Citation? • References and citations in text are the formal methods of acknowledging the use of a creator’s work. • An In-Text Citation? • Direct citations and quotations are acknowledged in the body of a research assignment. (Right in the sentence or paragraph)
How does plagiarism affect you?? WHAT happens if you plagiarize? • In junior/senior high school? • In post-secondary? • In society?
For Better or For Worse – Lynn Johnston http://www.fborfw.com/strip_fix/archives/000809.php
Special Consideration: The INTERNET • Special recognition needs to be given to the Internet as a source of information. Due to the transient nature of information on the Internet, a copy (either paper or disk) should be retained. WHY??? • Internet sites must be examined very carefully for reliability, as all sources are not authoritativeor trustworthy. • Lack of author or publisher often indicates that the information should be treatedwith caution. • The work of other students (e.g. home pages) may be consulted but should neverbe a sole source of information.
CITATIONS IN TEXT Definition Citations in text identify the source of quotations or a personal communication used in research. Thecitation provides the author’s last name, publication date and page number. 12 3 Purpose 1. Whether paraphrasing or quoting an author directly, the source must be credited. 2. Citations enable the reader to locate the source of the quotation in References. **It is like the difference between signing a legal document with your initials: EH (citation) and giving your whole signature: Erin Hansen (entry in Reference List).
Format • Citations are included in the same sentence or paragraph as the quotation. • 2. The sentence and the citation together must provide the author’s last name, the publication date andthe page(s) from which the quotation was taken (see quotation example #1 later). 3. For poetry, include line numbers and use a slash ‘/’ to indicate the end of a line. 4. Quotations of more than 40 words are indented five spaces from the left margin and are doublespacedin a free-standing block(example later) They are also known as a Block Quotation
Punctuation 1. Quotation marks “”enclose quotations of less than 40 words and are included in the text. 2. A colon: follows the statement immediately preceding a long quotation(block quotation). 3. Brackets( ) enclose information about the source of the quotation(this is the citation).
Quotation Examples 1. Quotation of less than 40 words: He confirms our suspicions: “Because N-Gen children are born with technology, they assimilate it. Adultsmust accommodate – a different and much more difficult learning process”_(Tapscott, 1998, p. 40). (no punctuation at end of quotation) (punctuation is here)
Quotation Examples 2. Quotations of more than forty words (Block Quotation): • The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(1994) explains how to avoidplagiarism: • Quotation marks should be used to indicate the exact words of another. Summarizing apassage or rearranging the order of a sentence and changing some of the words isparaphrasing. Each time a source is paraphrased, a credit for the source needs to beincluded in the text.(p. 292)_(no punctuation at end) (punctuation at end of quotation)
Or, if you are double-spacing your paper, SINGLE SPACE the block quotation • The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(1994) explains how to avoidplagiarism: • Quotation marks should be used to indicate the exact words of another. Summarizing apassage or rearranging the order of a sentence and changing some of the words isparaphrasing. Each time a source is paraphrased, a credit for the source needs to beincluded in the text.(p. 292)
Citation Example 1 • He states, “anything takes on a new meaning when we think of it as a monument”(Boorstin, 1987, p. 215) and adds that monuments can be both man-made and natural. • **Note punctuation • What makes this sentence elegant or unique? • The sentence has both a direct quotation and a paraphrase!
Citation Example 2 • Johnston and Cutchins(1988) state that “life is hard for animal babies of all kinds, but for young reptiles, surviving their first year is especially difficult” (p. 36). • To put two authors in the brackets, you must use the ampersand “&” symbol.(Johnston & Cutchins, 1988, p. 36) • For more than 3 authors, you may use the Latin phrase “et al” which means “and the rest” (Abrams, et al, 1999, p. 345)
Personal Communications Personal communications include e-mail letters, telephone conversations, interviews, etc. They arementioned in the body of a paper only, as they are not locatable. They are cited (see below for format), but NEVER included in your reference list, because a reader cannot refer to or locate them later. e.g. Author Martine Bates (personal communication, January 25, 2000) is excited about Marwen’s latestadventures and hopes her readers are too.
Citing Electronic Sources(Internet, CD-Rom, etc) For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers: Use the paragraph number, if available, preceded by the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para. If neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to direct the reader to the location of the material (see section 3.39). (Myers, 2000, ¶ 5)(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1) (APA Style, 2005, para. 3)
Citing Internet Sources or Sources with No Author Many times, you will encounter and need to cite a resource that does not have an author. We are used to doing citations using the author’s last name. However, this is not always possible. Here are three examples of a REFERENCE LISTING of resources that do not have authors: No Author Sports nutrition: Nutrition science & the Olympics. (1998). Retrieved January 24, 1999 from the Internet: http://btc.montana.edu/olympics/nutrition/default.htm Corporate author Centre for Systems Science at Simon Fraser University.[Image] (1996). Great Canadian scientists. Retrieved May 14, 1999 from the Internet: http://fas.sfu.ca/css/gcs/main.html OTHER Romeo and Juliet [CD-ROM]. (1997). New York: Columbia. **Use the first few words of the title or corporate author if no author’s name is given Examples: Many people feel that eating healthy foods can help your performance playing sports: “It is a proven fact that eating a nutritious meal prior to a game will increase performance” (Sports Nutrition, 1998). “O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo?” (Romeo and Juliet, 1997) .
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS REGARDING REFERENCES AND CITATIONS IN TEXT Why use the American Psychological Association (APA) format regarding references? It is the most widely recognized and authoritative source for references and citations in research work. This format is used in local universities. APA Website University of Calgary Citation Machine
References: *give the full information on how to access your sources. * go at the back of your document on a SEPARATE piece of paper. * The word “References” is bolded and centered at the top of the page.
The Reference List See the final page in your booklet
References APA Style.Org (2005). Electronic references: Citations in text of electronic material. Retrieved February 7, 2005 from the Internet: http://www.apastyle.org/electext.html Calgary Board of Education. (2000). References and citations in text: Formats for student research. Retrieved February 7, 2005, from the Internet: http://www.cbe.ab.ca/sss/ssspdf/ref-citations-05-00.pdf