The Psychology of Health, Immunity & Disease ConferenceTwo-Day Intensive Training InstituteHilton Head, SCDecember 9-10, 2003 The Journey to Wholeness:A Practical Psychology for Living an Authentic Life Kathleen Brehony, Ph.D.
Day One - MorningHelping Patients Be All They Can Be • The teleological process of growth – From Acorn to Oak • Jung’s Landscape of the Psyche and it’s inherent optimism • How to bring the shadow to consciousness • The “Alchemical Metaphor” for psychological and spiritual growth and how to apply this in clinical settings
What is “Wholeness”? • adj. • Containing all components; complete: a whole wardrobe for the tropics. • Not divided or disjoined; in one unit: a whole loaf. • Constituting the full amount, extent, or duration: The baby cried the whole trip home. • Not wounded, injured, or impaired; sound or unhurt: Many escaped the fire frightened but whole. • Having been restored; healed: After the treatment he felt whole. • n. • A number, group, set, or thing lacking no part or element; a complete thing. • An entity or system made up of interrelated parts: The value of the whole was greater than the sum of its parts. [Middle English hool, sound,unharmed, See kailo- in Indo-European Roots.]
Michelangelo: It is already inside you. A Major Reason for OPTIMISM!
Individuation – Carl Jung Self-Actualization – Abraham Maslow Self-Realization – Carl Rogers The Good Red Road – Lakota The Pollen Path – Navajo Tao -- Taoism
“The common theme among these diverse traditions is that life is a journey, and the goal is the discovery of one’s true nature, a transformation of one’s view of the world, an enhanced wisdom, and an authentic, loving connection to all of life and to some larger universal power.”-- Awakening at Midlife (pg. 20)
Maslow’s Characteristics of Self-Actualization • Realistic orientation • Acceptance of self, others, and the natural world • Spontaneity • Task orientation, rather than self-preoccupation • Sense of privacy • Independence • Vivid appreciativeness • Spirituality that is not necessarily religious in a formal sense • Sense of identity with mankind • Feelings of intimacy with a few loved ones • Democratic values • Recognition of the difference between means and ends • Humor that is philosophical rather than hostile • Creativeness • Nonconformism
The Process of IndividuationFrom Latin “individuus” – “undivided,” “whole” • A process of psychological differentiation, having for its goal the development of the individual personality • Not to overcome one’s personal psychology and become perfect, but to become familiar with it • Increasing awareness of one’s unique psychological reality, including personal strengths and limitations, and at the same time a deeper appreciation of humanity in general • A spiraling, circumambulating process rather than a linear path in the unfolding of the Self • When we are on the path, we are at the goal
Polishing Your Diamond The “art of personality” fulfills the purpose of life, and that we are all born with such a personality -- “But even a diamond must be cut. It has the light in it, yet cutting is required: it cannot show that glow and that brilliance before it has been cut. The same thing applies to personality.” -- Sufi Master Hazrat Inayat Khan Self Growth is not a passive process.
Jung’s Landscape Psycherefers to the totality of all psychological processes. It “embraces all thought, feeling, and behavior, both conscious and unconscious. It functions as a guide which regulates and adapts the individual to his social and physical environment.” “My psychology isn’t worth anything if it can’t be understood by a Swiss farmer!” Yikes!
The Self • The Center of the Psyche • The “Central Archetype” • Like the Sun in the Center of the Solar System • Archetype of order, organization, and unification • Unites the personality • Responsible for fulfilling the blueprint of life • At birth – all is the Self • Connecting bridge to “The Unity” • Goal is psychological wholeness and completeness • Transpersonal, transcends the ego
Archetypes • Primordial structural elements of the psyche • Functional units of the collective unconscious (later called “The Objective Psyche”) • Archetype = “First,” “Original,” “Prototype” • Primordial Images • Blueprint for Life (like an innate releasing mechanism in certain animals) • Universal • Unconscious • Collective unconscious is distinct from the Personal Unconscious
Complexes • Emotionally charged group of ideas or images • Functional units of the personal unconscious • A group of associated “feeling-toned ideas” bound together by a shared emotional charge • Unconscious, highly emotional, feel autonomous • Like split-off, partial, independent, and separate personalities • Vital part of everyone’s psychological make-up • The less conscious, the greater its degree of autonomy, and the more we will project it onto others.
The Ego • The central complex in the field of consciousness • Organizing function of the conscious mind • Gives sense of identity, continuity and personality – “I” • Composed of conscious perceptions, memories, thoughts and feelings • The “gatekeeper to consciousness” • Actually a very small part of the overall psyche
The Persona The part of ourselves we show to the world. Personae from the Latin for “Mask.” Helps us adapt to society – to conform to the roles we play in our relationships and culture. Social masks allow conversation and commerce to flow easily from one person to another. Sometimes our “New Year’s Resolution self.”
The Shadow All that is set aside, repressed, or unrecognized. Hidden part of ourselves that has been repressed or never recognized. All that is banished from the persona. Unconscious and unknown part of ourselves. All that we think we are not. Our unlived life. There is gold in the shadow. Accepting the shadow means accepting our full humanity.
Illuminating the Shadow • Make a list of all the adjectives that you (or someone who knows you well) would use to describe you. Take the opposite of that word and write it down. That list comprises some of what is in your shadow. • Look honestly at those you immediately dislike or like. What is it about them that is similar or different to how you see yourself? • Ask someone who knows you well one simple question: “What is my greatest flaw?” • Look at the content of dreams and slips of the tongue.
Anima/Animus:The Internal Masculine and Feminine Anima – The internal, unconscious feminine aspect of a man Animus – The internal, unconscious masculine aspect of a woman Jung speaks of the anima/animus as both archetypes and complexes. They are: 1) unconscious 2) charged with emotion 3) relatively autonomous.
Yin Yang Feminine Masculine Negative Positive Moon Sun Darkness Light Yielding Aggressive Left side Right side Warm Cold Autumn Spring Winter Summer Unconscious Conscious Emotion Reason Right Brain Left Brain
Psychological Types • Basic Attitudes: Introverts(I) and Extraverts(E) • Decision-Making Style:Thinking(T) v. Feeling(F) • Take in Information: Intuition(N) v. Sensation(S) • Deal with the Outer World: Judging(J) v. Perceiving(P) • Superior and Inferior Functions • Goal is wholeness and integration of the “inferior function”
E Extraversion People who prefer Extraversion tend to focus on the outer world of people and things I Introversion People who prefer Introversion tend to focus on the inner world of ideas and impressions. S Sensing People who prefer Sensing tend to focus on the present and on concrete information gained from their senses. N iNtuition People who prefer Intuition tend to focus on the future, with a view toward patterns and possibilities. T Thinking People who prefer Thinking tend to base their decisions on logic and on objective analysis of cause and effect. F Feeling People who prefer Feeling tend to base their decisions primarily on values and on subjective evaluation of person-centered concerns. J Judging People who prefer Judging tend to like a planned and organized approach to life and prefer to have things settled. P Perceiving People who prefer Perceiving tend to like a flexible and spontaneous approach to life and prefer to keep their options open.
Regarding Typology: Jung's model is concerned with the movement of energy and the way in which one habitually or preferentially orients oneself in the world.
Prayers Based on MBTI Types ISTJ: Lord, help me to relax about insignificant details beginning tomorrow at 11:41.23 a.m. EST. ISTP: God, help me to consider people's feelings, even if most of them ARE hypersensitive. ESTP: God, help me to take responsibility for my own actions, even though they're usually NOT my fault. ESTJ: God, help me to not try to RUN everything. But, if You need some help, just ask. ISFJ: Lord, help me to be more laid back and help me to do it EXACTLY right. ISFP: Lord, help me to stand up for my rights (if you don't mind my asking). ESFP: God, help me to take things more seriously, especially parties and dancing. ESFJ: God, give me patience, and I mean right NOW.
Prayers Based on MBTI Types INFJ: Lord, help me not be a perfectionist. (Did I spell that correctly?) INFP: God, help me to finish everything I sta ENFP: God, help me to keep my mind on one th - Look a bird - ing at a time. ENFJ: God, help me to do only what I can and trust you for the rest. Do you mind putting that in writing? INTJ: Lord, keep me open to others' ideas, WRONG though they may be. INTP: Lord, help me be less independent, but let me do it my way. ENTP: Lord, help me follow established procedures today. On second thought, I'll settle for a few minutes. ENTJ: Lord, help me slow downandnotrushthroughwhatIdo.
What is unconscious will be projected onto others and into the world. Wholeness requires withholding projections and bringing what is unconscious into consciousness.
Holding the Tension of the Opposites by Integrating Dualities The Transcendent Function: The psychic function that arises from the tension and conflict between consciousness and the unconscious. Thesis Synthesis Antithesis
What Does It Mean to be Conscious? • From the Latin conscius, meaning “knowing with others, participating in knowledge, or aware of.” • Includes all the things we are aware of and know • An understanding of “knowing that we know” • Sometimes builds slowly and sometimes comes like a blinding insight • Awakening • A dynamic process of growth, change, and evolution • Consciousness best defined on a spectrum or continuum rather than “all or none”
Consciousness is best thought of as manifesting in steps, layers, dimensions, sheaths, levels or grades -- holarchy Vijnanas -- Buddhism Layers of consciousness -- Jung Sefiroth Kabbalah Spectrum of Consciousness – Western philosophers (e.g., Ken Wilber) Koshas - Vedanta
Known to Yourself Unknown to Yourself Known to Others Open Self – Known to Yourself and Others Blind Self – Unknown to Yourself but Known to Others Unknown to Others Private Self – Known to Yourself and Unknown to Others Unknown Self – Unknown to Yourself and Unknown to Others The Johari Window A model for awareness in interpersonal relationships Joseph Luft, Ph.D. & Harry Ingham, MD, 1955
The Alchemical Metaphor “We are born to be awake, not to be asleep!” -- Paracelsus, 16th Century Swiss Alchemist
The Power of Alchemy “The truth of alchemy is discovered when we accept it as metaphor – an intricate allegory – for consciousness and as a clearly defined path for both spiritual and psychological development in which suffering and loss are seen as initiating events.” From: After the Darkest Hour
Stages in Alchemical Transformation • Nigredo: “The Blackening” • Albedo: “The Whitening” • Rubedo: “The Reddening”
The Vitality of Transformation • Like the Buddha WAKING UP • Realize the values of the first half of life are not sufficient for the second half • Change in philosophy and worldview • Psychological and spiritual maturity • Coming to our senses • Live differently – with greater joy, meaning, and passion
In the absence of some traumatic event that initiates the beginning of individuation in a younger person, this process is a task reserved for the second half of life. At midlife, we know that the time left for this momentous work is running out.
Day One - AfternoonThe Midlife Passage • Crisis and opportunity • The unique developmental tasks of the midlife transition • A differential diagnosis between midlife symptoms and DSM-IV criteria • Why the pursuit of passion and meaning at midlife is so important • How to release old patterns of behavior that no longer serve • Six practical strategies for psychological and spiritual growth at midlife
1. What is Midlife? 2. Why Midlife can be dangerous and difficult? 3. How to use Midlife for Self-Growth.
There are lots of us in Midlife… 81 Million Americans between the ages of 35-55. 10,000 Americans turn 50 every day (one every 10 seconds)
How we get off track… We are born whole but quickly become shaped by family, religion, culture, gender role, etc. etc. etc.
Midlife Gives Us Wake-Up Calls • Physical • Psychological • Emotional • Relational • Professional • Spiritual
Sometimes Midlife is a Crisis… “Danger” and “Opportunity”