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Microskills Hierarchy

Microskills Hierarchy. Five-stage interview structure Reflection of feeling Encouraging, paraphrasing, and summarizing Client observation skills Open and closed questions Attending behavior Ethics and multicultural competence. The Ivey Taxonomy. Anticipating the results of skill useage.

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Microskills Hierarchy

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  1. Microskills Hierarchy Five-stage interview structure Reflection of feeling Encouraging, paraphrasing, and summarizing Client observation skills Open and closed questions Attending behavior Ethics and multicultural competence

  2. The Ivey Taxonomy Anticipating the results of skill useage

  3. First Sections of Taxonomy • Ethics & Multicultural competence • Attending Behaviors • Basic Listening Sequence

  4. Ethics & Multicultural Competence Present in all interviews Expected Outcome Clients learn, appreciate, respect your knowledge

  5. Attending Behaviors Individually & culturally appropriate visuals, vocals, verbals, and body language Expected outcome Clients talk more freely & respond openly especially about topics to which attention is given (selective attention)

  6. Basic Listening Sequence • Open and closed questions • Observation • Encouraging • Paraphrasing • Summarizing

  7. Open and closed questions Open begin with who, what, when, where and why; Closed begin with is, and are Expected Outcome Open = more detail Closed = more specific Both = more talk

  8. Observation Observing self and other Verbals & nonverbals plus discrepancies & incongruities Expected Outcome Use as foundation for when to apply microskills

  9. Encouraging Verbal (repeat key words) and nonverbal (head nods) to support continued talking Expected outcome Topics are elaborated

  10. Paraphrasing Feed back a shortened version of what client said Expected outcome clients feel heard Further information given If inaccurate, allows corrective feedback

  11. Summarizing Longer time span than paraphrase Attention to feelings Expected outcome Helps integrate thoughts, feelings, behaviors More centered discussion

  12. Reflection of feeling Identify key emotions; feedback to clarify affective experience Expected outcome Helpees go more deeply into feelings

  13. Empathic Understanding • The listening skills presented thus far form the behavioral basis on empathy. • The qualitative dimensions such as concreteness, immediacy, and nonjudgmental attitude are also important.

  14. Levels of Empathy • Basic empathy – responses roughly interchangeable with those of helpee (level 3, 4, 5 on rating scale) • Additive empathy – adds to helpee statement by going beyond what is said to what is implied (level 6, 7 on rating scale)

  15. Positive Regard • Responding to the clients as worthy human being • Being nonjudgmental

  16. Respect and Warmth • Kinesthetic and nonverbal behaviors that demonstrate value to the client

  17. Concreteness • Specific • Thoughts • Feelings • Examples of actions

  18. Immediacy • Being in the moment • Here and now • NOT there and then • Use present tense

  19. Nonjudgmental Attitude • Operating from a values neutral position • Not imposing one’s own values on client • Change is unlikely without trust

  20. Authenticity and Congruence • Are you who you say you are?

  21. Five Stages of Interview • Initiating • Gathering Data • Mutual Goal Setting • Exploring Alternatives, Confronting Incongruities • Terminating

  22. Initiating the Session • Rapport and Structuring • Expected Outcome • The client will feel at ease and know what to expect.

  23. Gathering Data • Drawing out stories, concerns, problems, or issues • Expected Consequence: • The client will share thoughts, feelings, and behavior. With the positive asset search, the client will also be expected to share strengths and resources that may be available for the problem.

  24. Mutual Goal Setting • What do you want to work on today? / What do you want to happen? • Expected Consequence: • The client will discuss directions in which he or she might want to go, new ways of thinking, desired feeling states, and behaviors that might change. A more ideal story ending might be defined.

  25. Working • Exploring Alternatives, Confronting Incongruities, restorying. • Expected Consequence: • The client may reexamine individual goals in new ways and start the move toward new stories and action through confronting discrepancies, facing new challenges, and experiencing a variety of influencing skills form the interviewer.

  26. Terminating • Generalizing and acting on new stories. • Expected Consequence: • If all stages are completed successfully, expect the client to demonstrate change in behavior, thoughts, and feelings in daily life outside of the interview.

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