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Chapter 17 Foreign Policy and National Defense. Foreign Policy. All of the stands and actions that a nation takes in every aspect of its relationships with other countries – diplomatic, military, commercial, and all others
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Foreign Policy • All of the stands and actions that a nation takes in every aspect of its relationships with other countries – diplomatic, military, commercial, and all others • In other words, it includes everything that the nation’s government says and everything that it does in world affairs
The State Department • The President’s right arm in foreign affairs • Headed by the Secretary of State
Foreign Service • Every country has the right of legation – the right to send and receive diplomatic representatives • Ambassador – an official representative of the United States appointed by the President to represent the nation in matters of diplomacy
Diplomatic Immunity • In international law, all persons or things found in with in a state’s territory is subject to its jurisdiction… except ambassadors • Ambassadors are not subject to the laws of the state they are in. They cannot be arrested, sued, or taxed.
Defense Department • Unifies the nation’s armed forces • Secretary of Defense – Head of the department. Helps the President in making decisions about national defense and carrying out those decisions
Military Departments • Army – Largest and oldest of the armed service. Ground based • Navy – Role is sea warfare and defense. The Marines are part of the navy. • Air force – Became a branch in 1947 but originated in 1907. Currently the nation’s first line of defense.
Director of National Intelligence • Created after 9/11 to supervise and operate the federal intelligence community • Includes, among other agencies, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), and the National Security Agency (NSA). • Espionage - spying
Department of Homeland Security • Main task is to protect the country from terrorism • Terrorism – the use of violence to intimidate a government or a society, usually for political or ideological reasons
National Aeronautics and Space Administration • Russian satellite Sputnik 1 launched October 4th 1957 • American satellite Explorer 1 launched January 31st 1958. • The space race began between the two superpowers • Large military importance
Sputnik and the Moon Landing • http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=2163879743112748758#docid=343132914103158235 • http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1416393771637021814#
Foreign Policy Prior to WWII • Prior to WWII the United States had a policy of isolationism – a purposeful refusal to become generally involved in the affairs of the rest of the world • The power of the United States expanded and became evident during the late 1800’s
Foreign Policy After WWII • The United States was forced out of isolationism when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. • The United States moved into a policy of internationalism • Two New Principles • Collective Security • Deterrence
Collective Security • America hoped to forge a world where most nations would agree to act together against any nation that threatened the peace. • The United States took a lead role in forming the United Nations in 1945
Deterrence • The strategy of maintaining the military might of the United States at so great a level that the very strength of the military will discourage an attack on this country by a hostile power.
Cold War • The Cold War is a period of over 40 years during which relations between the two superpowers (United States and the USSR) were tense and often hostile. • Containment – if communism could be kept within its current boundaries, it would collapse due to its own weakness.
Cold War • The Berlin Blockade (1948) – The Soviets blocked east Berlin off in an attempt to make the allies turn it over. The U.S. responded with an airlift of supplies. • The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) – Russian set up nuclear missiles in Cuba. The United States responded with a naval blockade of Cuba. The Soviets backed down.
Hot Wars in the “Cold War” • The Korean War (1950-1953) • UN-sponsored South Korea was attacked by Communist North Korea. • A cease-fire (not a peace agreement) was signed • Neither side could claim victory. North Korea remains a communist country separate from South Korea. Hostility remains.
Hot Wars in the “Cold War” • The War in Vietnam (1954-1973/1975) • France decided Vietnam into two parts. The North became communist, the South noncommunist. • A civil war erupted and the U.S. came to the defense of the South. • Starting in 1969 the U.S. began to pull out troops. • A ceasefire was signed in 1973 but by 1975 the two Vietnams became the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam • http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-3959174358501303678# • http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=183819352964158525#
Détente and the End of the Cold War • Détente – a relaxing of tensions • Relations with Russia and China improved during the 1970’s and 1980’s • The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 and many of its satellites gained independence
Dangers Around the Globe • Afghanistan – The Taliban once ran this country. It was corrupt and allowed sanctuary for members of al Qaida (the terrorist organization behind the 9/11 attacks). It was overthrown by the U.S. and it now an insurgency group.
Dangers Around the Globe • Israel and the Middle East – Israel became a country in 1948. The land was controlled by Britain. After 1948 the Palestinians lost their land in a war with Israel. Many of the countries in the middle east do not believe Israel has the right to the land. Palestinians and Israelis periodically attack each other's settlements.
Dangers Around the Globe • Iran – The government is seeking to create nuclear weapons. The country is sympathetic to radical Muslims and does not believe in Israel’s right to exist.
Dangers Around the Globe • Iraq – Iraq was lead by the dictator Saddam Hussein. Hussein had biological and chemical weapons. The U.S. also accused him of having nuclear weapons. The U.S. invaded Iraq and took Saddam out of power. Since then the country has been torn by continuing violence.
Dangers Around the Globe • Africa – Many civil wars are ongoing in Africa, including multiple genocides. AIDS is killing large numbers in Africa and many preventable diseases kill many each year. • Engaged in civil war, resource war, or human rights abuses: Uganda, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Congo, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Liberia, Zimbabwe, Cote d’Ivoire • Without government: Somalia
Dangers Around the Globe • India and Pakistan – In 1947 when India gained independence from Britain the region was partitioned into India and Pakistan. Pakistan is majority Muslim and India is majority Hindu. There are still disputes about the border. Both countries have nuclear weapons.
Dangers Around the Globe • North Korea – North Korea is a communist country led by the dictator Kim Jong-il. North Korea claims to have nuclear weapons. The CIA and the UN believe North Korea not only has nuclear weapons but also biological weapons. The government tightly controls the population and has committed many human rights abuses.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) • Created in 1949 – It is a collective alliance formed initially to promote the collective defense of Western Europe from the USSR. • Today it still functions as a security alliance for its members.
The United Nations • General Assembly – “the town meeting of the world” • Each country has a seat and a vote in the general assembly • Resolutions are non-binding but send a message about the will of the world
The UN Security Council • 15 members • 5 permanent members – US, Britain, France, China, and Russia • Job is to maintain international peace