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Intercultural Communication

Intercultural Communication. Lecture 5 Topic and Face. Rhetorical Patterns. Inductive Topic delayed Because…so ( yinwei…suoyi ) Deductive Topic first So…because. ‘Inscrutable’ Asians?. And ‘Rude’ Americans? Young (1995) Crosstalk and Culture in Sino-American Communication.

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Intercultural Communication

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  1. Intercultural Communication Lecture 5 Topic and Face

  2. Rhetorical Patterns • Inductive • Topic delayed • Because…so • (yinwei…suoyi) • Deductive • Topic first • So…because

  3. ‘Inscrutable’ Asians? • And ‘Rude’ Americans? • Young (1995) Crosstalk and Culture in Sino-American Communication

  4. Influenced by… • Adjacency, sequence, turn-taking and timing • Call-answer-topic • Call-answer-facework-topic • Exceptions (eg. Close friends/ service encounters) • ‘nei’ and ‘wai’ encounters • Face relationships • Differences in cultural structuring of situations and participant roles

  5. Confucianism and face-relationships • Consciousness of power (‘rank’) differences • Person of higher position has right to introduce topic

  6. Situations • Deductive • When it is clear that speakers have the right to express their opinions in a free and unencumbered way • Inductive • When it is not clear the speakers have the right to express opinions in a free an unencumbered way (eg. When listeners are likely to resist these opinions)

  7. Face Strategies • Inductive • Independence • Deductive • involvement

  8. Topic and Face Systems • Deference • Inductive • Solidarity • Deductive • Heirarchial • Higher-deductive • Lower-inductive • Inferences • How do we interpret these rhetorical strategies?

  9. Culture and Written Discourse • Kaplan (1966) linearity vs. circularity • Directness vs. indirectness and digression • Kirkpatrick (1991, 1993) • Main>Subordinate vs. Subordinate>Main • Ulijn and St Amant (2000) • High vs. Low Context > Directness • Chinese Honorifics (Formality, Hierarchy, Modesty)

  10. Task • Look at the two examples of sales letters • Pay attention to the order of information and other strategies of rhetoric that are used • What differences can you see? • Can you relate any of these differences to the concepts we have been discussing?

  11. Zhu 2000 • Chinese Sales Letters • Greeting • Introduction • ‘We’ approach • Indirect requests • English Sales Letters • Headline • P.S. • ‘You’ approach • Direct requests

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