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Intercultural Communication

Intercultural Communication . Education in Japan. Education homogeneous, uses a national standardized curriculum Emphasis social studies, democratic political processes, religious tolerance Calligraphy used to enhance self-discipline and meditation Emphasis on reading and writing.

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Intercultural Communication

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  1. Intercultural Communication

  2. Education in Japan • Education homogeneous, uses a national standardized curriculum • Emphasis social studies, democratic political processes, religious tolerance • Calligraphy used to enhance self-discipline and meditation • Emphasis on reading and writing

  3. Education in Japan • English is a required subject • Little emphasis on oral communication • Japanese take exams to get into good junior and senior high schools • Attend private schools, juku, to prepare for entrance exams and master subjects • Parents see education as most important factor in their children’s future success

  4. Education in Japan • Single most important natural resource--their people • High value on education and teachers • Close partnership of parents and teacher (Heart of a Nation) • Teachers try to bring students along as a group (Heart of a Nation)

  5. Education In Japan • Uniforms, uniform book bags common in Japanese schools (Schools of Thought) • Japanese students polite and disciplined (Schools of Thought) • Important for Japanese students to work cooperatively together (Heart of a Nation)

  6. Education In Korea • All schools follow same program of study • Learn Korean, Chinese, and English • Get into schools through regional exams and lottery • Emphasis on moral education • Group solidarity and conformity are goals • Wear badges and uniforms

  7. Education In Korea • Show respect by avoiding eye contact • Bow and don’t start a conversation with an elder • Students avoid disagreement with teacher • Remain silent rather than show lack of understanding • Hesitate to express personal opinions

  8. Education In Mexico • Arts, vocational skills and Mexican cultural values emphasized (Sal Valdivia says no, reading, writing, arithmetic) • Each student takes tests to continue • Few required classes at university level • Mexican teacher has significant status

  9. Education In Mexico • Teachers involved in their students’ personal lives (Sal says no) • Schools emphasize family ties and cooperative environment • Students enthusiastically participate in classroom discussions (Sal says students are quiet) • Teachers get physically close to students and use touch (Sal says no)

  10. Education In Mexico • Mexican students work at a relaxed pace • Mexican students put emphasis on doing a good job • Mexican students are not dominated by the clock • Sal Valdivia says some of these generalizations may only apply to private schools

  11. Education In Mexico • Sal Valdivia says Mexican law only requires students to attend school until the age of 12 or 6th grade • Most students do not attend high school • Mexican teachers are friends with their students (Sal says no) • Teachers are autocratic, yet sensitive (Teachers are aloof)

  12. Communication Styles And The Educational Setting • Direct versus indirect • Americans • Chinese, Japanese, Native Americans • Formal versus informal communication • Americans • Egypt, Turkey, Taiwan

  13. Relational Styles And The Educational Setting • Participatory versus passive learning • Many Hispanic and Asian cultures passive learning • American culture tends toward active learning • Reflectivity versus impulsivity • American students taught quickly respond • Asian and Native Americans slower response

  14. Cultural Variations: Causes of Illness • Many people of Asian origin may view illness as an imbalance between yin and yang • Yin is passive, feminine, wet, dark, cold • Yang is active, masculine, light, heat, dryness • Many traditional Mexicans and Puerto Ricans believe illness caused by imbalance

  15. Cultural Variations: Causes of Illness • In four humors (blood, yellow bile, phlegm, black bile) • African, Haitian, Jamaican, and Native American peoples perceive illness result of disharmony with nature • Hmong believe bad winds and evil spirits can cause illness

  16. Cultural Variations: Treatment of Illness • Chinese use acupuncture to restore balance between yin and yang • Chinese use herbal remedies • Hmong use shamans to enter spiritual world • Mien use healing ceremonies • Mexicans use folk healers(Curanderos), emphasis on restoring balance with God, relationships

  17. Cultural Variations: Prevention of Illness • U.S emphasis on physical exams, exercise, good nutrition • Many Muslims use Koran to protect them from illness • Mexicans and Puerto Ricans use charms inscribed with magic symbols or sayings • Candles, herbs, crystals, statues of saints are used

  18. Cultural Variations: Prevention of Illness • Many cultures avoid violating cultural taboos • Some Native Americans taboo to cut child’s hair • Some Native Americans attach a medicine bundle to chest of a child • Some cultures don’t believe in prevention strategies

  19. Male Dominance • Male dominance in Middle East, Mexico, Latin America, Asia, and Africa • Male makes all major decisions in traditional Mexican households • Little credibility given to female doctors and nurses

  20. Male Dominance • Little credibility given to female doctors and nurses • Saudi Arabian men answer all questions directed at their wives for doctor visits • Male child often receives preferential medical treatment

  21. Formality • Many Asian, Mexican, and European cultures value formality in language use • Asian patient may be shocked when doctor addresses him by his first name • Many cultures it is extremely important not to be rude or disrespectful to authority figures

  22. Formality • Many cultures authority figures not to be disagreed with or challenged

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