First Aid Course Patricia ruotsalainen First Aid Instructor 2011 First Aid Course 2006 Siw Sandell First Aid Instructor
Introduction Test your First Aid knowledge and skills Principals of First Aid Basic Human Anatomy (Bonus) Assess the situation Call for help Unconscious victim Airway obstruction CPR Shock Bleeding & infections Fractures & soft tissue injuries Medical emergencies Course Outline
Course Outline (2) • Assess and observe • Initial observation of the whole scene • Stay calm
Learning outcome: • Demonstrate • knowledge of the • principals of first aid • knowledge of basic • human anatomy • ability in the examination • of a victim • competence in the • provision of CPR • knowledge of identifying a • range of common • illnesses and injuries • First aid management for • a range of common • illnesses and injuries Aim: To provide you with basic skills and knowledge in order to recognize andprovide First Aid for circulatory and respiratory emergencies(CPR) and to recognize a range of common illnesses and injuries.
To preserve life ____________________________ ____________________________ To prevent the injury or condition worsening ______________________________________________ ___________________________________________`___ To promote recovery ____________________________ ____________________________ Stay calm Assess the situation Safety of First Aider Safety of other people Safety of victim Airway – Breathing Circulation Use of bystanders to maintain Safety Do No Harm Principals and priorities of First Aid
The Vital Link Early accessEarly Defibrillation Early CPREarly ACLS
Calling for help! 112 • What has happened? • Where? • How Many? • Answer questions. • Do not hang up! Wait for the operator to tell you when to hang up. • Guide the helpers to the right place.
Check the victim for response Not responding – Call 112 and Open Airway
Check for normal breathing • Look for chest movement. • Listen to the victim‘s • mouth for breath sounds. • Feel for air on your cheek.
Recovery position Tongue
Obstructed Airway Unconscious victim drug or alcohol abuse Foreign object like food, ice, toys, dentures, broken teeth, vomits… Tissue damage accident related, poisons, fights…
Obstructed airway continues… Swelling Respiratory infections, allergic reaction Paralyzed airway brain damage, damage to spinal cord, poisoning… Heart diseases may collect liquid in the lungs
Obstructed Airway Tell the victim to cough Deliver 5 back slapsx 2 between the shoulder blades
Heimlich maneuver If still not breathing – give abdominal thrusts 5- 6 times
First Aid for choking • Tell the victim to cough! • Deliver 5 back slaps • If not breathing 5 back slaps • If not breathing Heimlich maneuver (abdominal thrusts) 5 – 6 times 5. Finger sweep and check breathing 6. If not breathing repeat abdominal thrusts • If unconscious call for help repeat steps 1 to 6 x 3 No CPR
Disorders of the Heart Angina Pectoris Narrowed coronary arteries Heart Attack Obstructed (clot) coronary arteries Cardiac Arrest Sudden stoppage of the heart (blood loss, suffocation, electric shock, anaphylactic shock, drug overdose, hypothermia…) Ventricular fibrillation ( VF ) Heart fibrillates – no regular beat
Angina pectoris Reduced blood supply to the heart during times of stress. Produces pain in the chest similar to that of heart attack
Adult Life Support ADULT CARDIO – PULMONARY RESUSCITATION CPR 30 CHEST COMPRESSIONS : 2BREATHS
Child Life Support CHILD CARDIO – PULMONARY RESUSCITATION – CPR under 8 years old Start with 5 breaths and then continue with 30 chest compressions : 2 breaths
”Every minute counts” Clinical death: Heart stops Biological death: Brain death
Chances of recovery • CPR must be commmenced immidiately! • The time from stoppage of the heart to permanent death of brain tissue is aprox. 4 minutes. • The avarage response time by an ambulance is 7 - 8 minutes (whole country 15-20 minutes). • Someone is needed to sustain life until the ambulance arrives!
First Aid for bleeding • Elevate above heart level Blood flow subsides 2. Lie down the victim • Prevents shock 3. Calm down • Less oxygen 4. Apply pressure dressing 5. Apply indirect pressure Not more than 10 minutes
Shock happens when… There is a problem with your: Pump: You need to have a functioning heart to pump blood around Pipes: You need functioning vessels to carry the blood. Plasma: You need adequate blood in the system. If there is a loss, there will not be adequate volume circulating.
Treatment of shock • Treat any cause of shock you identify. • Stay calm and reassure the victim • Lay down the victim and slightly elevate his legs. • Maintain normal body temperature • Give nothing to drink 6. Check and record breathing, pulse and level of response.
Shock continues… Anaphylactic shock Is a massive allergic reaction by the body’s immune system. Fainting Is a self-correcting form of shock resulting from temporary lack of blood flow to the brain.
Musculoskeletal injuries Fractures • any break in a bone Dislocation • when one end of a bone making up a joint is pulled or pushed out of place Sprain • when a ligament is torn (ankle, knee, finger…) Strain stretching of a muscle or tendon or mild tearing of muscle (neck, lower back…)
R I C E R Rest the injured part I Apply Ice C Compress the injury EElevate the injured part
Medical emergencies Do you know First Aid for Asthma ? Diabetes ? Seizures ?
Priorities of Emergency Care Highest priority for Injuries: • Airway obstruction • Severe breathing difficulty • Burns involving the respiratory tract • Cardiac arrest • Severe bleeding • Shock • Spinal Injury • Severe head injury • Open chest injuries • Open abdominal wounds
Priorities for Emergency Care Highest priority for Medical Problems: • Heart attack • Stroke • Heat stroke • Poisoning • Childbirth • Diabetic emergencies
Bonus points Read through the “Human anatomy handout and answer study questions. You have until next week Monday to come to my office and show me your answers.