Intervention Strategies for borderline students How to get your D’s into C’s!!
The issues There are a number of factors that frequently cause students to lose marks in exams, and for the D/C student this can mean not achieving the C grade of which they are capable. These are:- • Misreading the question and as a result giving an answer which misses the point; • Failing to tailor the exam answer to the number of marks available; • Extracting information inaccurately from tables, graphs, drawings, photographs or other sources in the exam; • Using subject-specific, often technical language inaccurately or incorrectly • Omitting units for numerical answers • Poor spelling; • Not making best use of time in the exam.
The issues continued… More generally, the D/C student also exhibits weakness in exam preparation, such as: • Failing to organise their revision, including failing to prepare a timetable; • Not being able to prioritise the most important aspects to revise; • Spending time ‘revising’ while not concentrating; • Lacking a suite of effective revision skills and techniques; • Having insufficient subject notes to revise from; • Showing uncertainty about how to tackle the exam itself
Objectives • To know what is meant by intervention and when it should take place • To know what form successful written and oral feedback should take and how it works as an intervention strategy. • To know how to utilise target setting to improve students performance.
When should intervention take place? • Intervention should take place throughout the GCSE course, starting from the first lesson finishing the lesson before the exams
Oral Feedback Task 1: In groups of 2 or 3 write down as many advantages of oral feedback that you can think of. • immediate and context specific • dynamic and adaptable • ongoing • stimulating • personalised • versatile • motivating
Some possible difficulties of oral feedback Task 2: In groups of 2 or 3 discuss possible ways of avoiding these possible difficulties. • Instant responses from the teacher may not always be well considered • Pupils may not act on oral feedback and may not take it seriously. Other pupils may not listen to it • Unplanned responses can become random and fail to develop pupils’ learning in a structured way • Pupils may feel exposed by public feedback • Pupils may not have the time needed to reflect on the feedback and respond to it • Feedback may not be immediately understood • Individuals can dominate question and answer sessions • Fast-paced question and answer sessions may be mistaken for fast-paced learning • Time for individual feedback is limited
Oral feedback Task 3: listen to the statements and place the letter for each statement on the diagram. Specific Negative Positive Non-specific Slide 4.1.5
Oral feedback as intervention Instant, informal reply Interim review at the end of key episodes during a lesson to build on learning Planned review with individual or groups of pupils focusing on their targets Handout 4.1.5: shows various types of oral feedback and the group composition used.
A suggested sequence for giving individual oral feedback in a planned review as intervention • Plan feedback which is positive and specific • Reinforce the value and importance of the pupils’ contribution • Focus on recent learning objectives and learning outcomes in the context of pupil targets • Give the pupil(s) time to reflect and respond • Encourage the pupil(s) to ask questions to clarify their understanding of the progress they have made • Identify and agree the most important next steps in learning and revise pupil targets if necessary • Agree immediate and longer-term actions. Clarify when these will be reviewed, by whom, and what evidence will be sought Slide 4.1.8
Developing quality written feedback In order to improve the quality of feedback there must be explicit expectations about it. Teachers need to explain to pupils that, in line with whole-school policy: • they will receive feedback on their work periodically and selectively • such feedback will be focused on key priorities [the learning objectives] • such feedback will identify what they need to do to improve • seeking help is an essential part of their learning and leads to useful discussion about ways of learning • feedback will require interactivity/action by the pupil Slide 4.2.4
Examining the quality of written feedback Task 4: Use handout 4.2.1 to examine different written feedback comments and decide whether it provides information to the pupil: A. whether they are on the right track? B. their limitations and encourage them to correct work? C. a way to improve their learning? D. a way to think through the answers for themselves?
Summaryon Feedback • All feedback needs to be positive and specific. • Feedback is even better if linked to curriculum targets eg grade requirements. • Taking the time over constructive comments reaps rewards with student performance. • Mark less to achieve more!!!
The purposes of target setting • To use sources of information, including attainment data, to focus plans on raising standards of pupil attainment. • To ensure pupils’ prior attainment and achievement is built upon throughout the key stage. • To identify and focus teaching on areas of underperformance. • To actively support improved learning outcomes for underachieving groups of pupils.
Curricular and Grade targets • Long term: GCSE predicted grade • Medium term: End of module target/ project target • Short term: Target generated from homework or class work.
Using Targets to improve performance • It is important that students get regular updates of their current performance. • Students also need to know how to improve – the use of grade ladders and curricular targets is vital here. • Students need to be able to log improvement and keep a record of their progress. See handouts for suggestions and examples
Final Hints and tips using target setting • The majority of GCSE subjects have pre-published sheets to aid students with their revision, using curricular targets. • Checklists can be created for all units of work and are helpful in reinforcing grade differences. • Persistent use of revision booklets reinforces good revision habits in students • Students need to be encouraged to set, and record, their own curricular targets. • Students need to be given opportunities to self-assess their own coursework and make any amendments if required. • It is vital that coursework pieces, once marked, are shared with the students so that they know how to improve on any future pieces.
Summary of intervention strategies • Intervention needs to be constant throughout Key Stage 4 • Oral and written feedback are two of the most successful intervention methods • Target setting is crucial in making students aware of their progress and the next steps that they need to take to move up a grade.