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Intervention strategies

Intervention strategies

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Intervention strategies

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  1. Intervention strategies Constance J. Fournier, Ph.D.

  2. Goal and objectives • Goal: to review or develop new strategies for counseling in the school setting • Objective: TLW select social competence strategies for the school setting • Objective: TLW be able to use active listening in a role play activity • Objective: TLW be able to use the stoplight strategy in a role play • Objective: TLW be able to share additional strategies with each other

  3. Levels of intervention • Prevention • General population • Age appropriate • Risk reduction • Self selection (older children) • Teacher referral • Areas that might be of concern later (parents divorcing; parent deployment; itinerant families) • Early intervention • Individual or small group • Similar issues (ADHD, test anxiety)

  4. Levels of Intervention • Treatment • Specific targeted therapy (e.g., Cognitive Behavioral therapy; protocol treatment for depression) • Medication • Other specific treatments

  5. Developing social competence • Identify children early (teachers are your resource) • Provide positive focused interventions • Look at rehabilitation instead of punishment • Promote caring relationships between adults and children • Encourage engaged learning in the classroom • Encourage family involvement • McNamara, K. Best practices in Promotion of Social Competence in the Schools, Best Practices in School Psychology

  6. Developing social competence • Identify children early • Teacher with experience can identify the children who are outside the typical range • Evaluate for depression, anxiety, ADHD, or other concerns • Help facilitate outside treatment as needed • Use your school nurse as an ally • Discipline referrals can be a good source of identification • Check with your school nurse

  7. Developing social competence • Provide positive focused interventions • Work on strengthening positive behaviors with positive reinforcement • Provide the safe place where the children can be appreciated • Let children be a referral source as well

  8. Developing social competence • Look at rehabilitation instead of punishment • Instead of punishing, look at developing positive replacement behaviors • Example: instead of punishing for talking inappropriately in class, assign the student as a tutor for another child • Example: instead of sending the child to the office for bad behavior, send for good behavior • use self-monitoring programs • Happy face monitoring • Tracking with graphs

  9. Self monitoring ideas • Happy face • : ) : ~ : | : (

  10. Explain the program to Don • Three people in a group, one is the counselor, one is the observer, and one is Don. • Observer: give feedback of what the counselor did well, and what they might do better • Don: ask questions when you don’t understand

  11. Self Monitoring ideas • Mark in the number of times a specific behavior has occurred • Raising hand before calling out

  12. Explain the program to Lydia • Three people in a group, one is the counselor, one is the observer, and one is Lydia. • Observer: give feedback of what the counselor did well, and what they might do better • Lydia: ask questions when you don’t understand

  13. Developing social competence • Promote caring relationships between adults and children • Have “I caught you being good” days where both children and adults can give out stickers. • Encourage positive talk among teachers in the lunch room. • Encourage times where adults can be seen as caring ( meeting with students before or after class; working with clubs; going to student events)

  14. Developing social competence • Encourage engaged learning in the classroom • The more engaged children are in learning, the less inappropriate behaviors will occur • Give teachers reinforcement for having engaged learning going on in their classrooms • Encourage student leadership • Encourage student input and choices

  15. Developing social competence • Encourage family involvement • Families come when they have to and when they want to • Make the ‘have to’ times positive and pleasant • Make opportunities for the ‘want to’ times • Make sure communication is accessible to parents • English and Spanish • Parent friendly language • Group Question: What does or can your school do to encourage parent interaction?

  16. Developing positive climate • Everyone contributes to learning • The bus driver and cafeteria workers are as important as the superintendent and principal in setting mood and climate • Achievement is key • Students need to believe they can and will learn • Students need to connect learning to experiences and to their future in a way that makes sense to them • Fairness • Fair is not equal, fair is what is needed

  17. Developing positive climate • Parent participation • More is better (math and science fair) • Caring and sensitivity • Each staff and faculty member shows consideration of parents, students, and each other • Building and grounds • Look as good as possible • Community clean up/beautification day • Shared resources

  18. Social skills training • Promoting skill acquisition • Modeling • Coaching • Rehearsal • Enhancing skill performance • Analog with peers, adults • Staged in vivo with peers and adults • In vivo assessed • Manipulating antecedents • Manipulating consequences

  19. Social Skills training • Reinforcing wanted behaviors • Training adults to specific positive praise • Giving wanted reinforcers • Using negative reinforcers for change (e.g., wants to be sent out of class, so allow positive visits to the office; wants attention of peers, so make a peer tutor • Using what the student wants instead of what you think they like

  20. Social skills training • Add to positive behaviors in the tool box for child • Reinforce new positive behaviors • Build on these behaviors for new situations • What has worked well in the past? • Who have you talked to that helped you in the past? • When can you do your best? • How can we set you up for success?

  21. Stoplight activity • Red--stop before you act • Yellow—think about your actions • Green—go ahead with the most appropriate action for the circumstances Draw Write

  22. Case of Annie • Annie has been referred to you by her teacher because she has been yelling at other students for ‘messing’ with her stuff. • Three people in a group, one is the counselor, one is the observer, and one is Annie. • Observer: give feedback of what the counselor did well, and what they might do better

  23. Case of Rafael • Rafael has been sent to you because of several incidents of yelling at peers and teachers. • Three people in a group, one is the counselor, one is the observer, and one is Rafael. • Observer: give feedback of what the counselor did well, and what they might do better

  24. Active listening • Listen actively • Reaffirm what you are hearing “So I hear you say that…” • Tell what you know about procedures • DON’T make promised you cannot keep • You can say “I am sorry this is happening to you.” “You will be fine.”

  25. Doing Groups • Young children • Small number • More didactic • Short amount of time • Keep personalities similar • Use programs already set • Source: Linda Reddy Group Play Interventions for Teaching Prosocial Skills • Available on

  26. Doing Groups • Older children • Time • Group composition • Theme versus process type • Stages • Open versus closed

  27. groups • Time • Need time to warm up—at least 40 minutes for a group to take place • Consider timing • Can’t be a same time—missing same class • Can’t always be before or after school • Can’t always be at lunch • Consider rotating schedule

  28. group

  29. gROUP • Group composition • Interview students first • Do they want to be there • What are they hoping to get out of group • Can they keep confidentiality—if not, don’t put in a group • Consider if the timing is right—may need individual counseling first • Stack the deck in your favor • Limit personality disorder types—none at first • Limit off task students to one or two

  30. Group • Composition • Keep similar age range • Keep genders separate • Keep problems in same ball park

  31. Group • Theme versus process type • Theme groups are for specific similar problems that are phase of life situations • Children of divorce • Children of deployed parents • Children with diabetes • Can have slighty wider range of ages • Can be mixed gender • Will often be part therapy and part didactic

  32. Process groups are for similar issues, but may be somewhat different based on individual • Students need to have trust in group • Need to be in same range of age, interests • Should probably be a closed group, or at least closed at times

  33. Groups • Stages • Initial group(s) • Resistance • Working • Ending

  34. groups • Initial groups • Introductions • Group rules • Confidentiality • Staying safe • Active listening • Staying positive • Apologizing for breaking rules in writing • Ease in activities • What is a woman • What is a man

  35. Groups • Resistance • Necessary part of the process if you want buy in • Goofing around • Not participating • Being superficial • Distractions • Joking • Be consistent about what the group is for • Use I statements • Use actions that can start conversations (family portrait) • Close open groups during this time

  36. Groups • Working • Sharing ideas and feelings • Giving advice • Using homework for beginning and end • Can have a theme • Be sure everyone is heard • “Greek chorus” if needed

  37. Groups • Ending • Voluntary as much as possible • Saying goodbye to each group member by stating what they learned from them • Each group member says what they learned from that student • Student affirms what they will be doing to carry on the spirit of the group

  38. question • How many do you think would be good in a group for the age that you work with? • Share your numbers and rationale • If you have done groups, what works well with scheduling

  39. conclusion • You make a difference. • Find mentoring/partners • Action plan • Create your own personal team of Mental Health Specialists and Partners in your school • Consider school nurse, health education teachers, PE teachers and coaches • Also have the usual team • Touch base in a regular way • Consider staffing of at risk students