Objective – participantswillunderstand and be ableto: • applyspecificinterventionstrategies in theirclassrooms.
Some Intervention Strategies for an Inclusion Classroom • Incorporate interaction with various groupings (cooperative learning). • Establish prior knowledge. • Use a step-by-step approach. Scaffolding) • Teach learning strategies. • Vary types of instruction and assessment with multiple intelligences and sensory elements (visual, auditory, kinesthetic). • Handouts – Inclusion Strategies That Work! And “Valuable and Applicable Things To Do Every Day In All Classrooms On A Daily Basis”
Interaction Activity – Shared Likes & Dislikes • Form groups of 5 or 6. • You have only 5 minutes to reach agreement on a movie that all of you like and one movie that all of you dislike; a celebrity that all of you like and one that all of you dislike; and a book that all of you like and one that all of you dislike. • The goal is to reach consensus quickly.
Why use Interaction in the classroom? • Learning is more effective when students have an opportunity to participate fully in lessons by discussing ideas and information. • Socially, students become more interpersonal by sharing introspections. Learning about each other is very interesting. • Interaction with others is an important component of reading instruction for increasing motivation and comprehension. (Interaction need not always be oral. Ex. journals, e-pals) • Additionally, when student interests are considered and they are given choices, students become more involved in their learning, and make meaningful learning connections and achieve and retain deeper understandings.
How do effective teachers help all students think—and learn? “Thinking is to a student’s knowledge as photosynthesis is to a plant’s food. Plants do not get food from soil. They make it through photosynthesis, using water and nutrients from the soil and energy from sunlight. No photosynthesis, no food. Students do not get knowledge from teachers, or books, or experience with hands-on materials. They make it by thinking, using information, and experience. No thinking, no learning.” Charles Thompson & John Zueli, 1999
What is Scaffolding?A Step-by-Step Approach Teachers scaffold instruction when they provide substantial amounts of support and assistance in the earliest stages of teaching a new concept or strategy, and then decrease the amount of support as the learners acquire experience through multiple practice opportunities. (Vacca, 2000)
Increasing Independence Practice Apply Teach Model Increasing Independence Whole class Small group Partners Independent Work Scaffolding Techniques Scaffolding Model: Teach, Model, Practice, Apply Scaffolding Model: Grouping
Say and writethedirectionsstepbystep and repeat them for better understanding.
Estrategias de aprendizaje – ¿Cómo podemos ayudar a los alumnos a aprender cómo aprender? • Las estrategias se refieren a conductas que los estudiantes utilizan para ayudarles a entender, estudiar o retener información nueva. • Algunos estudiantes tienen dificultad para iniciar un papel activo en el uso de estrategias de aprendizaje debido a altos niveles de frustración o ansiedad.
What are Learning Strategies?(How do you know what you know?) Effective learners have special ways of processing the new information they are learning. These mental processes are called learning strategies. Students with learning difficulties have difficulty processing new information due to their neurological processing. However, teachers can impact student learning by teaching a variety of strategies to improve how students access information in memory (background or prior knowledge), make connections between what they know and what they are learning, solve problems, and retain newly learned information.
Examples of learning strategies: One good definition of a learning strategy is ‘a systematic plan, consciously adapted and monitored to improve one’s performance in learning.’1 A strategy for making links between the students’ background experience and new learning concepts would be analogy. EJ: A government is like a family. A strategy for ensuring that students comprehend information is visual imaging. Ask students to see the object in their minds, and then to draw a picture of it. (Rainbow, p. 4 Opposites)
LearningStrategies– How can wehelpourstudentslearnhowtolearn? • Provideexplicitinstruction in learningstrategies. • Modellearningstrategies. • Offermanyopportunitiesto use a variety of strategies.
Definition and examples: Astrategtomake links between prior knowledge and new conceptswould be analogy. EX: A governmentislike a family. Astrategytoensurethatstudentsunderstandtheinformationisvisualization.
Activity: Using Visual Imaging toTeach the Concept of Opposites • Close your eyes and relax. • Pretend your body is the word “cold.” • Visualize the word in a cold color, picture something cold, feel your body getting colder, move your body the way you would if you were cold. • Relax. “Hot” is the opposite of “cold.” • Experience being “hot.” Visualize, picture, feel and move. • 6. Discuss the differences in feelings.
Imaginable Curriculum Connections • Social Studies: Imagine you are living in 1500. Look around and describe your thoughts. • Science: You are a plant with roots too small for your pot. How do you feel? What are your needs? Describe your greatest wish. • Reading: You are the main character’s best friend. What activities do you do together? Tell how you would change the plot.
Actividad: MULTIPLEINTELIGENCES… • Interview: Stand up and circulate. Interview a colleaguewho can answer “Yes” tothefollowingquestions. Iftheintervieweeanswers “No,” youyouhavetofind and interview a differentperson. • Writethename of theinterviewee in theblank. Careful! It has to be a differentpersonforeachquestion. 3. Whenyouhavecompletedthesurvey, returntoyourseat.
Warm-up activity - Find someone who… • Loves to dance and/or _________________ does physical exercise. • Is good at solving math _________________ problems (balances checkbook). • Loves to read and _________________ expresses him/herself well. • Can draw a picture to _________________ represent his/her feelings today. • Sings in the shower and _________________ when riding in the car.
Samples of activities with multiple intelligences and sensory elements: • Teaching How to Tell Time: The Clock Body – Draw a 4’ circle (clock)on the chalkboard. The children stand and pretend they are clocks. Begin with both hands at the 12:00 position, etc. • Compare/contrast: Cinderella – Draw a picture of Cinderella and her stepsisters. Then say how their lives were the same and different. Your peer/tutor acts as scribe and writes down your conclusions in a Venn diagram. Dialog is important. • Memorization - Compose a rap or lyrics to a popular melody (“London Bridge,” “Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star”) using historical or scientific facts. • Write a poem or mnemonics to memorize facts. • Summarize: “Somebody wanted to __, but __ so__
Discussion – How Can You Use Graphic Organizers In Your Classroom? • Graphic Organizers - a strategy for showing the relationships among concepts or vocabulary being taught. http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/spanish/ Handouts in Teacher Packet: • p. 62, IC That Work! Establishing Prior Knowledge • Semantic Mapping – Teaching New Vocabulary and Key Concepts • Venn Diagram • T- Chart • Interest Survey
Closure:¿Qué hacen los profesores eficaces para ayudar a sus alumnos a pensar y aprender? • Use Interaction (CooperativeLearning) • ImplementScaffolding (stepbystep) • Share graphicorganizers • Teachlearningstrategies – howtolearn • Asociatetheinterests of thestudentwiththelessoncontent • Includeactivitiesformultipleintelligences and sensoryelements
Repaso:¿Qué hacen los profesores eficaces para ayudar a sus alumnos a pensar y aprender? • Activatethe prior knowledge of thestudents and relate itexplicitlytotheday’slessoncontent. • Use gestures, bodylanguage, real objects (supplementary) and picturestoacompanyyourspokenwords and bringmeaningtothemessage. • Explainusing oral and writteninstructions; show, don’ttellormodelthetask.
ESTABLISH PRIOR KNOWLEDGE Sayeverythingyouknowabout(Topic) Curricular questions and examples: • Who? _____________________ • Where? _____________________ • Why? ____________________ • When? ____________________ • How? ______________________ • What? ____________________
Supplementarymaterials • Objectsyou can touchormanipulate • Authenticmaterials • Pictures and drawings • Multimedia objects • Demonstrations • Literature y personal reviews • Graphicorganizers
Activity – In yourgroup, choose and implementone of thesestrategies: Topic: "SpecialEducationConference“ • Write a headlineornewspaperreview. • Role play: A reporter y severalinterviewees. • Draw a pictureoradvertisement; write a caption. • Write a rap/poem/song/videogame • Yourownway to representwhatyou learned. (Youmay use anyresourcesavailable.)