Terrorism- Ethics • What is terrorism?Definition: political violence: violence or the threat of violence, especially bombing, kidnapping, and assassination, carried out for political purposes, the experience of terror or fear as the proximate aim of that violence • The moral question: Can terrorism ever be morally justified?
Further Definitions • The tactic of intentionally targeting non-combatants [or non-combatant property, when significantly related to life and security] with lethal or severe violence … meant to produce political results via the creation of fear (Coady 2001: 1697). • The deliberate use of violence, or threat of its use, against innocent people, with the aim of intimidating some other people into a course of action they otherwise would not take (Primoratz 2004: 24).
History of Terrorism • Zealots- 1st Century against Roman occupiers. • French Revolution-”Reign of Terror’- guillotine. • Irish Republic Army (1867)- today- Fenians
History of Terrorism • Russia-1881-Assasination of Tsar Alexander & his family. • 1893-Macedonian Revolutionaries- 1934-assasination of Alexander • Munich Massacre -1972; Lockerbie –Pan Am -1988; Olympic Park bombing-96 • Bali bombing-2002/5;Madrid-July 7, 2005; NY Trade Center -September 11, 2001
State Terrorism ? • “Killing of innocents to affecting morale.”- • Attacks on London, on Berlin, Dresden & on Hiroshima. • Genocide- Turkey- Armenians; Holocaust, Bosnia, Somalia; Rwanda
Different Motives • Stop “peace” processes. • Demonstrate opposition to U.S. government or others. • Punish advancing science and technology- “Unabomber” • Seeking independence-Basque
Civil Disobedience • Def: “The active refusal to obey certain laws, demands, & commands of government or of an occupying power without resorting to physical violence. • Gandhi, South Africa, M.L. King, Henry David Thoreau
Bio-Terrorism • Biological Weapons Convention-1972 • “The parties undertake not to develop, produce, stockpile, or acquire biological agents or toxins- that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, and other peaceful purposes, as well as weapons and means of delivery.”
Bio-Terrorism • Joint Statement- 2005 • We reaffirm our support for the Convention. We will continue to work to strengthen it by a work plan and to press for full implementation and compliance in 2006. (US,UK & Russian Federation)