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Historical Period 3

Historical Period 3

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Historical Period 3

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  1. Historical Period 3 Notes

  2. Overview After the Seven Years’ War ended in 1763, the British desired more revenue to pay for protecting their empire while many American colonists saw themselves as self-sufficient. These clashing views resulted in the colonies declaring independence, winning a war, and founding a new nation. Initially governed by the Articles of Confederation with a weak federal government, the new United States soon replaced it with a new constitution that created a federal government that was stronger, though still with limited powers. Out of the debates over the new constitution and policies emerged two parties. The test of stability of the American system came in 1800, when one party, the Federalists, peacefully transferred power to the other, the Democratic-Republicans. Throughout this period there was a continuous westward migration resulting in new opportunities, blended cultures, and increased conflicts with the American Indians and other European nations.

  3. PART IImperial Wars and Colonial Protest 1754-1774

  4. Introduction The people, even to the lowest ranks, have become more attentive to their liberties, more inquisitive about them, and more determined to defend them than they were ever before known or had occasion to be. John Adams, 1765 • The reason for colonial discontent that caused colonists to “become more attentive to their liberties?” • Change in British colonial policy • Britain began to assert its power in the colonies by collecting taxes and enforcing trade laws

  5. Empires at War WATCH THIS BEFORE PROCEEDING

  6. Empires at War • Late 17th century (1600s) wars involving Britain, France, and Spain broke out. • These were high-stakes wars as the winner would gain supremacy in the West Indies and Canada and to dominate colonial trade

  7. Empires at War The First Three Wars • King William’s War (1689-1697); Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713) • England attempted to take Quebec (From France) – fail at first • Native Americans support France; burn British frontier settlements • Eventual win for England – gain Nova Scotia from France and trading rights in Spanish America • King George’s (George II) War (1744-1748) • Brit colonies under attack from French and Spanish • New England colonists captured Louisbourg, French fortress that controlled access to St. Lawrence River. • Peace treaty that ended the war gave it back to French in exchange for political/economic access in India • New England colonists furious over loss of fort that they fought hard to win

  8. Empires at War The Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War) • 1st 3 wars focused primarily on battles in Europe, secondarily on in conflict colonies • F & I War = 4th war in the series. • Began in Colonies, then spread to Europe • Both France and Britain recognized importance of their North American colonies and sent large troop force there rather than rely on “amateur” colonial forces • Known in Europe as the Seven Years War, the North American phase known as French and Indian War

  9. The 1st Global War All the participants of the Seven Years' War   Great Britain, Prussia, Portugal, with allies France, Spain, Austria, Russia, Sweden with allies

  10. Empires at War The Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War) • Beginning of the War • France claimed Louisiana (which encompassed most of continental America) • Brits claim France started it by building forts in Ohio Valley • France built forts to halt westward growth of British colonies • Brits sent small militia under Col George Washington to stop French from completing Ft Duquesne (Pittsburg) which would have secured the Ohio River Valley for France • Washington’s troops surrender to force of Frenchmen and their American Indian allies July 3, 1754 – The War is on! • Most Indian tribes side with French due to better relationship and mutual toleration Read This!!

  11. The Battleground

  12. Empires at War The Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War) • Beginning of the War • 1755. Led by Gen Edward Braddock, English suffer disastrous defeat. Braddock killed • Algonquin Indians (French allies) ravaged frontier from PA to NC • French repulsed Brit invasion of French Canada

  13. Empires at War The Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War) • The Albany Plan of Union • Brits called for reps from colonies to meet in a congress at Albany, NY 1754 • Ben Franklin proposed the plan • Inter-colonial gov’t + system for recruiting troops and collecting taxes for their common defense • Plan never took effect as each colony jealously guarded its own taxation powers • Significance of Albany Plan of Union? • Set precedent for later congresses in 1770s

  14. The Albany Plan of Union Join, or Die. is a political cartoon attributed to Benjamin Franklin. The original publication by the Gazette on May 9, 1754, is the earliest known pictorial representation of colonial union produced by a British colonist in America.

  15. HAPPy This

  16. Empires at War The Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War) • British Victory • Brit Prime Minister William Pitt crafted British Strategy: conquer Canada • Accomplished with retaking of Louisbourg 1758, surrender of Quebec 1759, taking of Montreal 1760 • Treaty of Paris 1763 • Brits acquire French Canada and Spanish FL • France ceded Louisiana to Spain (to compensate for Spanish loss of FL) • Significance of Treaty of Paris 1763? • Brits gain control of North America • French power on continent virtually ended

  17. Boundaries Before & After Another Look 

  18. Empires at War The Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War) • Immediate Effects of the French and Indian War • Brits gain supremacy in North America and become top naval power in the world • Ended colonial threats from French, Spanish, their America Indian Allies • Changed the relationship between colonies and England

  19. Empires at War The Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War) • British View • Low opinion of colonial military abilities (poorly trained, disorderly rabble) • Noted that some colonies refused to contribute troops or money (some colonial merchants were even selling food/supplies to the French!) • Concluded that colonists were unable and unwilling to defend Brit empire

  20. Empires at War The Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War) • The Colonial View • Proud of their military performance and successes in the four wars • Held firm the belief that they could provide for their own defense • Unimpressed with British troops and their leadership and strategies (unsuited to American terrain) • Resented and resisted impressment (forcible enlistment of colonists) and seizure of supplies and equipment without compensation • Resented British view of war experience

  21. Empires at War Reorganization of the British Empire • Shift in colonial policies • FROMSalutary neglect – little direct control over colonies • didn’t enforce navigation laws regulating colonial trade • decentralized and inefficient administration - b/c there was no agency devoted to colonial admin • royal officials were inept and easily bribed • by 1750s, American colonial assemblies were levying taxes, making appropriations, and passing laws • TO more forceful policies for taking control of their expanded North American dominions. • British troops permanently stationed in America to guard its American frontiers • All 4 wars, (especially F & I) were very costly. Britain shifted the burden of paying heavy taxes to pay for the wars from the British landowners to the American colonies

  22. Empires at War Reorganization of the British Empire • Pontiac’s Rebellion • Chief Pontiac led major attack against settlements on western frontier • Angered by growing westward movement of European settlers onto their land and by Brit refusal to offer gifts (like the French) • Pontiac’s alliance of American Indians in OH Valley destroyed British forts/settlements from NY to VA • Brits sent regular troops to put down rebellion – instead of relying on colonial forces

  23. Empires at War Reorganization of the British Empire • Proclamation of 1763 • To stabilize the western frontier with natives, proclamation prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalachian mts. – drew an imagery boundary line • Hoped that future hostilities with natives would be prevented by limiting future settlements • Colonists reacted with anger and defiance • Had helped Brits win the French and Indian War. Now with France gone, wanted access to western lands • Defied the proclamation and thousands streamed westward beyond imaginary boundary line

  24. British Actions and Colonial Reactions • Brits believed their actions were justified to protect their colonial empire and to make colonies pay their fair share of costs for such protection. • Colonists believed that they were threats to liberty and the practice of representative government aka

  25. British Actions and Colonial Reactions Colonial Resistance to Colonial Taxes – Trouble in the BackwoodsThe backcountry (frontier) continued to be a spot for conflict between frontier settlers and Native Americans and these settlers and those that held political power (recall Bacon’s Rebellion) • The Paxton Boys (1763) • Frontiersman in Western PA demanded relief from taxes and money to help defend themselves against Native Americans • A group of vigilantes known as the Paxton Boys took revenge by massacring peaceful Susquehannock Indians in Lancaster County • Marched on the capitol in Philadelphia, but stopped without violence when leaders (including Ben Franklin) agreed to consider their demands

  26. The Paxton Boys Things to think about… • How does this compare to other rebellions in the colonies - what are some common issues? • How does colonial diversity and population contribute to Pennsylvania’s problems? • How are pamphlets used? • How does this conflict shape their understanding of politics and their role in it?

  27. British Actions and Colonial Reactions Colonial Resistance to Colonial Taxes – Trouble in the BackwoodsThe Regulator Movement (1763-1771) • Small farmers and villagers in western North Carolina outraged by corrupt plantation owners and colonial government overtaxing them • Regulators wanted equal representation in gov’t (elimination of property requirement), fair taxation, and responsible gov’t • County court ad sheriff buildings looted and destroyed • Tax collectors resisted by force and Gov Tryon sent forces to down the rebellion • NC Militia defeated Regulators, six leaders were arrested and hanged

  28. British Actions and Colonial Reactions New Revenues and Regulations • Lord George Grenville, King George III’s chancellor of treasury and Prime Minister sought to generate revenue by passing a series of acts. These acts passed under Grenville and his successors dramatically increased tension between the colonies and England. George Grenville British Prime Minister who sought to generate revenue by passing a series of acts. These acts passed under Grenville and his successors dramatically increased tension between the colonies and England.

  29. British Actions and Colonial Reactions New Revenues and Regulations • The Sugar Act (1764) aka Revenue Act of 1764 – duties on foreign sugar and certain luxuries • First time Parliament taxed colonies for purpose of raising revenues in the colonies and not just regulating trade • Cut duty on Molasses in half (trying to stop smuggling between colonies and the Spanish and French West Indies) in hopes that merchants would be more willing to pay the tax • Most merchants continued smuggling & bribes (still cheaper than paying the tax) • Established Vice-Admiralty Courts that tried those accused of smuggling by crown-appointed judges without juries (before, merchants accused of Navigation Acts violations were tried by local courts where friendly juries usually acquitted them) • Increased prosecutions of smugglers & corrupt officials, decreased ease of smuggling & availability of French and Spanish goods

  30. British Actions and Colonial Reactions New Revenues and Regulations • The Currency Act 1764 • prohibited colonies from printing paper currency - to protect British banks and coinage

  31. British Actions and Colonial Reactions New Revenues and Regulations • Quartering Act 1765 (& 1774) • required the colonies to supply British troops with provisions and provide them housing • Applied to all colonies, but led to fighting in NY I’m here! And hungry!

  32. British Actions and Colonial Reactions New Revenues and Regulations • The Stamp Act (1765) • First Direct tax, similar to a sales tax, collected from those who used the goods – paid by the people in the colonies, as opposed to the taxes on imported goods, which were paid by merchants • required tax stamps affixed to most printed materials/legal documents: Newspapers, books, pamphlets, property deeds, business contracts & licenses, marriage licenses, birth certificate, wills, playing cards • Combined with Sugar & Currency Acts (decreased goods and currency with increased taxes) = inflation of prices

  33. British Actions and Colonial Reactions New Revenues and Regulations • Colonial Resistance to Stamp Act • Patrick Henry represented many when he spoke in the House of Burgesses and demanded that the king recognize rights of all citizens – including the right not to be taxed without representation • James Otis initiated a call for cooperative action among the colonies to protest the Stamp Act • Sons of Liberty (Sam Adams) – A secret society made up of Anti-British Vigilantes opposed to the end of Salutary Neglect • Organized a Boycott (most effective form of protest) of British manufactured goods throughout the colonies • Intimidated tax agents; sometimes destroyed revenue stamps; Tarred and Feathered British officials and colonial ‘traitors;’ looted shops and homes of ‘sympathizers’

  34. British Actions and Colonial Reactions New Revenues and Regulations • Colonial Resistance to Stamp Act • Daughter of Liberty: Mercy Otis Warren female writer and propagandist of the revolution “I am more and more convinced, of the propensity in human nature to tyranize over their fellow men...” • Virginia Resolves (May 30, 1765) – Resolutions passed by the House of Burgesses in response to the Stamp Act. Declared Virginians were entitled to the rights o Englishmen and could only be taxed by their own elected representatives, not Parliament

  35. British Actions and Colonial Reactions New Revenues and Regulations • Colonial Resistance to Stamp Act • Stamp Act Congress (October 7-25, 1765) • 9/13 colonial assemblies sent delegates to NY to discuss opposition to the Stamp Act – First time a majority of the colonies worked together against the British • Issued “The Declaration of Rights and Grievances” • Colonists have same rights as Englishmen • Trial by Jury a right • No Taxation without Representation • Colonial Assemblies only body with right to tax colonies

  36. British Actions and Colonial Reactions New Revenues and Regulations • The Declaratory Act 1766 • Grenville out, New Brit PM William Pitt in. Parliament voted to repeal Stamp Act. Why? Because of negative impact on British trade (boycotts) • Colonists happy, HOWEVER, Act confirmed British sovereignty over colonies, declaring the right to pass laws and taxes “in all cases whatsoever” • Brits argued that Parliament’s authority was the same in the colonies as it was in Britain through “Virtual Representation” • Colonies sent ‘Factors’ to Parliament to voice their opinion, but they had no right to vote • Ben Franklin was PA’s ‘Factor” in Parliament during much of this time

  37. British Actions and Colonial Reactions Second Phase of the Crisis 1767-1773 Problem: British gov’t still needed income. Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer (treasury), proposed the acts that become known as……

  38. British Actions and Colonial Reactions Second Phase of the Crisis 1767-1773 • The Townshend Acts • New duties on colonial imports of tea, glass, paper, lead • Effect on colonists? Merchants had to raise price of goods to afford the tax • Required that revenues raised be used to pay crown officials • Significance? Made these officials independent of colonial assemblies - that had previously paid their salaries • Provided for the search of private homes for smuggled goods on the basis of only a Writ of Assistance (general license to search anywhere) instead of a judge’s warrant permitting only specifically named properties • Suspended NY’s assembly for its defiance of Quartering Act • Viewed as precedent for the annihilation of all colonial gov’t rights

  39. British Actions and Colonial Reactions Second Phase of the Crisis 1767-1773 • Colonial Reaction to the Townshend Acts • Accepted initially because they were indirect taxes paid by merchants • Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer, 1768 written by John Dickinson • A series of 12 essays that were widely read and reprinted throughout the colonies, and were important in uniting the colonists against the Townshend Acts • Acknowledged the authority of Parliament to regulate commerce, but argued that because duties were a form of taxation, they could not be levied without consent of representative assemblies. Essential principle of English law = No Taxation Without Representation

  40. British Actions and Colonial Reactions Second Phase of the Crisis 1767-1773 • Colonial Reaction to the Townshend Acts • 1768 James Otis and Samuel Adams wrote the Massachusetts Circular Letter • urged colonies to petition Parliament to repeal the Townshend Acts • Argued Parliament did not have authority to tax colonists, only the colonial assemblies had the authority, thus implying that British taxation was a violation of the British Constitution and their natural rights • Brits received the letter, threatened to dissolve the legislature and increased the number of troops in Boston • Colonist boycotted and merchants smuggled to avoid the Townshend duties, instead turning to homespun and domestic products

  41. British Actions and Colonial Reactions Second Phase of the Crisis 1767-1773 • Repeal of the Townshend Acts 1770 • Lord Frederick North, new British Prime Minister called for repeal of Townshend Acts. Why? Damaged trade and generated only small revenues • Repealed 1770, but Parliament kept small tax on tea as a symbol of its right to tax colonies • Repeal ushered in 3 year respite from political troubles – with exception of……Boston Massacre

  42. British Actions and Colonial Reactions Second Phase of the Crisis 1767-1773 • Boston Massacre March 1770 • Reaction to resentment over Quartering • British troops patrolled Boston like an occupied city due to Sons of Liberty violence: “tarring and feathering’ tax collectors, looting officials’ houses, and smuggling. These soldiers also competed with colonists for jobs which increased the tensions • Sons of Liberty began hurling rocks and snowballs at British patrol • Redcoats fired into the crowd killing 5 people, including Crispus Attucks, a runaway mulatto slave • Redcoats put on trial with colonial jury, but John Adams as their defense lawyer got all but two acquitted • Paul Revere created propaganda implying the British were Tyrannical and Colonists innocent victims

  43. Boston Massacre March 1770 “The Bloody Massacre” By Paul Revere Played a major role in turning the victims into Martyrs by portraying British as aggressors and the colonists as peaceful protestors

  44. British Actions and Colonial Reactions Renewal of the Conflict • The Gaspee Affair 1772 • Gaspee– A British customs ship that caught several smugglers and ran aground offshore of CT/RI. Colonists seized the opportunity to destroy the hated vessel. • Brits planned to try attackers for treason – IN ENGLAND (not in colonial courts), increasing tension between the two sides. • Case closed for lack of ‘credible witnesses’

  45. British Actions and Colonial Reactions Renewal of the Conflict • Committees of Correspondence • initiated by Sam Adams in MA, 1772, to keep alive incidents such as the Gaspee along with the idea that Brits were undermining colonial liberties • secret communication between colonial leaders • committees regularly exchanged letters warning about suspicious/threatening British activities • VA House of Burgesses organized intercolonial committees in 1773 - all colonies established Committees of Correspondence

  46. British Actions and Colonial Reactions Renewal of the Conflict • The Tea Act 1773 • Passed by Parliament to protect British East India Tea Company from going bankrupt – allowed company to sell tea duty free (although still subject to Townshend duty of 3 pence/lb) directly to the colonies (making it cheaper than the smuggled Dutch tea) • Colonists viewed it as trying to purchase their submission with cheap tea

  47. British Actions and Colonial Reactions Renewal of the Conflict • The Boston Tea Party Dec. 16, 1773 • Colonists continued to boycott Brit tea, representing their refusal to accept Brits “right” to tax the colonies • Sons of Liberty prevented ships from delivering their cargoes in NY, Philadelphia and Charleston, but MA Royal Gov was determined to land the tea and collect the Townshend tax. • Group of Bostonians disguised themselves as Mohawk Indians and boarded 3 East India Co ships then threw 342 chests of tea overboard • Colonial reaction was mixed. Some saw Boston Tea Party as a justifiable defense of liberty, others thought the destruction of private property was too radical

  48. The Boston Tea Party Dec 16, 1773

  49. British Actions and Colonial Reactions Intolerable Acts A series of laws enacted by the British in response to the Boston Tea Party, The Coercive Acts, known in the colonies as The Intolerable Acts • Port Act – closed port of Boston for export or import until tea was paid for • Massachusetts Government Act – reduced power of MA legislature while increasing power of royal governor, Gen Gage – who enacted martial law in the colony • Administration of Justice Act – allowed royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in England rather than the colonies • Quartering Act expanded and strengthened in all 13 colonies allowing Redcoats to seize and use private property