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The Vietnam War

The Vietnam War

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The Vietnam War

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  1. The Vietnam War By: Will Quintero

  2. Background • The Vietnam war, also known as the Second Indochina War, was a Cold War military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and in Cambodia from November 1, 1955 to April 30, 1975 when Saigon fell. • It was fought between the Communist North Vietnam supported by Communist allies Soviet Union and China, and South Vietnam supported by United States and other Anti-communists nations. • South Vietnam and United States forces relied on air support, ground forces, artillery and air strikes.

  3. North • Vs • South synthetic music

  4. Belligerents • Anti-Communist Communist • South Vietnam North Vietnam • U.S.A Viet Cong • South Korea Khmer Rouge • Australian Pathet Laos • Philippines People Republic Of China • New Zealand Soviet Union • Thailand North Korea • Khmer Republic • Kingdom Of Laos • Republic of China

  5. Casualties • Vietnamese (Both Sides) - 3 – 4 million Vietnamese • Laotians & Cambodians - 1.5 – 2 million • U.S.A - 58,159 U.S soldiers

  6. Overview Continues • The United States entered the war to prevent the communist to take over South Vietnam as part of their strategy of containment. • Military arrived in 1950, in 1961 troop level were tripling in 1961 and tripling again in 1962. • The capture of Saigon by North Vietnam army in April 1975 marked the end of the war.

  7. Background1949 • France began its conquest of Indochina in the late 1850’s . • The Treaty of Hue concluded in 1884, formed basis for French colonial rule in Vietnam for the next 7 decades • During 1944-1945, a deep famine struck the North Vietnam due to combination of poor weather and Japanese exploitation. • 1 million people died of starvation. • In August 1945, the Japanese had been defeated and surrendered unconditionally.

  8. Background Continues • On September 2 1945, Ho Chi Minh, leader of Viet Minh, declared the independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam. • However, the major allies victors of WWII, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Soviet Union all agreed to belong to the French. • But the French did not have ships, weapons, or soldiers to retake Vietnam. • After the French landed on Vietnam, the Viet Minh started the Guerrilla War against the French Union forces and started the First Indochina War.

  9. 1950 • Exit • Of • The • French

  10. The January 1950, the communist nations, led by the People Republic of China, recognizing the Viet Minh’s Democratic Republic of Vietnam. • In September 1950, the U.S created a Military Assistance and Advisory Group to help aid the French. • There were also talks between the French and the U.S about tactical nuclear weapons was considered. • The Battle of Dien Bien Phu marked the end of French involvement in Indochina. • On May 7 1954, French Union surrendered.

  11. Transition Period • Vietnam was temporarily partitioned at the 17th parallel, civilians were to be given the opportunity to freely move betweenthe two provisional states for a 300-day period. • Around 1 million northerners, mainly minority Catholics, fled to the south, fearing persecutions by the communists. • The Viet Minh left roughly 5,000 to 10,000 cadres in South Vietnam. • Around 52,000 Vietnamese civilians moved from south to north. • In the north, Vietnam estimated 8,000 perceived “class enemies” were executed.

  12. Diem Era 1955-1963 • The Geneva Conference, 1954 • The Domino Theory, which argued that if one country fell to the communist forces, then all of the states surrounding countries would follow. • Also that Communism will overflow North Vietnam

  13. Rule • A Roman Catholic, Diem was fervently anti-communist, nationalist and socially conservation • Beginning in the summer of 1955, Diem launched the “Denounce the Communist” campaign, which communists and other anti-government elements were arrested, imprison, tortured, or executed. • Opponents were labeled Viet Cong. • As a measure of the level of political repression, about 12,000 suspected opponents of Diem were killed in the years 1955-1957 and by the end of 1958 an estimated 40,000 political prisoners had been jailed.

  14. Insurgency In The South 1956 • The Sino-Soviet led to a reduction in the influence of the PCR, which had insisted in 1954 that the Viet Minh accept division of the country. • Ho Chin Minh began to attack the south because of Diem’s Campaign. • According to the estimated, 20% of South Vietnam’s villages chief had been assassinated by the insurgents by 1958. • On December 12 1960, Hanoi authorized the creation of the National Liberation Front as a Common Front controlled buy the communist party in the south.

  15. Duan urged a military line and advocated increased assistance to the insurgency. 4 hundred government officials were assassinated in 1957 alone, and the violence increased. • In January 1959, the North’s Central Committee issued a secret resolution an “armed struggle”.

  16. Coup & Assassination • The inept performance of the South Vietnamese army was exemplified by failed actions such as the Battle of Ap Bac on January 2 1963, in which a small band of Viet Cong beat off a much larger and better equipped South Vietnamese force. • Discontent with Diem’s policies exploded following the Hue Vesak shootings of majority. • President Diem was overthrown and executed, along with his brother, on November 2 1963. • In this picture, Diem after being shot and killed in the 1963 coup.

  17. Hanoi took advantage of the situation and increased its support for the guerrillas. • South Vietnam entered a period of extreme political instability, as one military government toppled another in quick succession.

  18. Civilians lie dead and a South Vietnamese soldier still sits in his jeep after being shot in the head by a team of hit-and-run Vietcong in 1968. Vietnamese children are running past and looking at the charred and dismembered bodies.

  19. Helmets, rifles and jungle boots tell a grim tale of the action fought by the 1st Brigade, 101st airborne paratroopers in Operation Wheeler near Chu Lai. This battlefield memorial honors the soldiers killed during the offensive between September 11th and November 25th, 1967

  20. Lyndon B. Johnson Expands The War, 1963-1969 • Lyndon B. John, as he took over the presidency after the death of Kennedy, initially did not consider Vietnam a priority and was more concerned with his “Great Society”. • On November 24 1963, Johnson said, “The battle against communism must be joined, with strength and determination. • Johnson withdrew 1,000 troops from Vietnam by the end of 1963 to expand the war.

  21. On August 2 1964, the USS Maddox, an intelligence mission along North Vietnam coast, allegedly fired upon and damaged several torpedo boats that had been stalking it in the Gulf of Tonkin • A second attack was reported 2 days later on the USS Turner Joy and Maddox in the same area. • The second attack led to retaliatory air strikes, prompted Congress to approve the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, and gave the president power to conduct military operations in Southeast Asia without declaring war

  22. From a strength of approximately 5,000 at the start of 1959 the Viet Cong’s ranks grew to about 100,000 at the end of 1964 between 1961 and 1964 the army’s strength rose from about 850,000 to nearly a million men. • The numbers for US troops deployed to Vietnam during the same period were quite different; 2,000 in 1961, rising rapidly to 16,500 in 1964. • National Security Council recommended a three-stage escalation of the bombing of North Vietnam

  23. On March 2 1965, following an attack on a U.S. Marine barracks at Pleiku • The bombing campaign lasted 3 years. • Between March 1965 and November 1968, “Rolling Thunder” deluged the north with million tons of missiles, rockets, and bombs.

  24. Escalation & Ground War • After several attacks upon them, it was decided that U.S. Air Force bases need more protection. • On March 8 1965, 3,500 United States Marines were dispatched in South Vietnam • This marked that beginning of the ground war. • In December, Army of the Republic of Vietnam forces suffered heavy losses at the battle of Binh Gia. • Hit-and-Run Battle • Once again the Forces of Vietnam lost in the Battle of Dong Xoai.

  25. Westmoreland outlined a three-point plan to win the war. • 1. Commitment of U.S (and other free world) forces necessary to halt the losing trend by the end of 1965. • 2. U.S and allied forces mount major offensive actions to seize the initiative to destroy guerrilla and organize enemy forces. • 3. If the enemy persisted, a period of twelve to eighteen months following phase 2 would be required for the final destruction of enemy forces remaining in remote base areas.

  26. Tet Offensive • In January 1968, the NVA broke the truce that accompanied the Tet. • They launched a surprise attack hope of sparking a national uprising. • Over 100 cities were attacked, with assaults on General Westmoreland’s headquarters and the US Embassy, Saigon

  27. Vietnamization • Serve communist losses during the Tet offensive allowed U.S President Richard M. Nixon to being troop withdraws. • On October 10, 1969, Nixon ordered a squadron of 18 B-52’s loaded with nuclear weapons to race to the border of Soviet Airspace in order to convince the Soviet Union that he was capable of anything to end the Vietnam War. • The civilians cost of the war was again questioned when the U.S concluded operation Speedy Express which claimed body count of 10,889 communist guerillas with only 40 US losses.

  28. Beginning of 1970 American troops were bring taken away from borders areas where much more killing took place and instead put along the coast and interior which 1 reason why casualties in 1970 were less than half of 1969’s totals

  29. Operation Menu: The Secret Bombing of Cambodia & Laos • Prince Norodom Sihanouk had proclaim Cambodia neutral since 1955. • The country borders were closed, and the U.S. and ARVN launched incursions into Cambodia to attack VPA/NLF bases and buy time for South Vietnam. • The ARVN launched Operation Lam Son 719 in February 1971, aimed at cutting the Ho Chi Minh trail in Laos. • When they ran out of fuel, soldiers abandon their vehicles and ran to American helicopters. • Half got either killed or captured.