The Vietnam War • Was it the right decision for the US to fight in Vietnam?
War in Vietnam vs. Democratic Republic of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam
1919-1954: Ho Chi Minh vs. Imperialism • 1919:Ho Chi Minh travels to Versailles to meet Pres. Wilson • HCM rejected by Wilson, joins the Communist Party • 1941: Japan invades French Indochina, HCM forms the Vietminh to fight Japan • 1945: Vietminh drive Japanese out, HCM declares an independent Vietnam • French want their colony back, go to war w/ Vietminh, French lose in 1954
Eisenhower Years (1954-1959) • Ho Chi Minh controls north, Ngo Dinh Diem controls south until nationwide elections are held in 1956 • Diem & US fearful HCM will win election, cancel elections & declare independent South Vietnam • 1954: Geneva Accords ends war but Vietnam is split at 17th parallel • HCM forms North Vietnam, declares war on SV • Afraid SV will fall to Communists (Domino Theory) US sends Military Advisors to SV
Southeast Asia Map Turn to page 545 add this info to your map • Label all 5 countries in key (Thailand is west of Laos/North of Cambodia) • North Vietnam & Laos are influenced by Soviet Union • South Vietnam & Thailand are influenced by the United States • Cambodia is influenced by the United States & Communist Rebels • Label Saigon, Da Nang, Hue, Haiphong, Hanoi, Gulf of Tonkin, Mekong Delta, Ho Chi Minh Trail • Color all countries for homework
Kennedy Years (1960-1964) • 1963: JFK okays removal of Diem in a coup de tat. Diem killed. After JFK is assassinated two ships allegedly fired upon in Tonkin Gulf • 1960: southern communists form a guerilla army called the Vietcong • 1962: Pres. Kennedy encourages Flexible Response, send more advisors, but Diem is very unpopular with S. Vietnamese people
Johnson Years (1964-1968) • LBJ asks Congress to pass Tonkin Gulf Resolution • LBJ sends Gen Westmoreland to S. Vietnam, will find & destroy VC, while winning “hearts & minds” of villagers (Search & Destroy) • 1966: LBJ asks Congress for draft and $12.8 billion • Anti-war protests begin, boxing champ Muhammad Ali refuses the draft and is sent to prison • Dec 67: LBJ & Westmoreland assure US public that enemy is nearly defeated even though 500K troops are now in Vietnam • N. Vietnamese Army & Vietcong launch Tet Offensive, reach Saigon, proves LBJ was lying – LBJ won’t run for reelection “I ain’t got no quarrel with them Vietcong”
Vietnam Protest Movement For What its Worth by Buffalo Springfield • What do you think the group mean by “There’s something happening here…what it is ain’t exactly clear”? • How does the group describe youth & the protest movement? • What does the group say about the government? • What does the group want young people to do?
Nixon/Ford Years (1969-1975) • Former VP Richard Nixon wins election, promising “Peace /w Honor” • Nixon’s Vietnamization plan will turn over ground fighting to S. Vietnam, bring home troops but expand bombing campaign • 1973: Paris Peace Accords - US, North Vietnam and South Vietnam sign a peace treaty ending the war (Kissinger negotiates treaty) • 1974-75: N. Vietnam invades S. Vietnam. President Ford asks Congress to help, Congress refuses. Saigon falls in April1975
US Cold War Foreign Policy Search & Destroy - Vietnam Advisors in Vietnam Domino Theory/ Flexible Response Containment Policy Arms Race