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CHAPTER 9

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  1. CHAPTER 9 Financial Planning and Forecasting Pro Forma Financial Statements

  2. Topics in Chapter • Financial planning • Additional Funds Needed (AFN) formula • Pro forma financial statements • Sales forecasts • Percent of sales method

  3. Financial Planning and Pro Forma Statements • Three important uses: • Forecast the amount of external financing that will be required • Evaluate the impact that changes in the operating plan have on the value of the firm • Set appropriate targets for compensation plans

  4. Steps in Financial Forecasting • Forecast sales • Project the assets needed to support sales • Project internally generated funds • Project outside funds needed • Decide how to raise funds • See effects of plan on ratios and stock price

  5. 2006 Balance Sheet(Millions of $) Cash & sec. $ 20 Accts. pay. & accruals $ 100 Accounts rec. 240 Notes payable 100 Inventories 240 Total CL $ 200 Total CA $ 500 L-T debt 100 Common stk 500 Net fixed Retained 500 assets earnings 200 Total assets $1,000 Total claims $1,000

  6. 2006 Income Statement(Millions of $) $2,000.00 Sales 1,200.00 Less: COGS (60%) 700.00 SGA costs EBIT $ 100.00 10.00 Interest EBT $ 90.00 Taxes (40%) 36.00 Net income $ 54.00 Dividends (40%) $21.60 Add’n to RE $32.40

  7. AFN (Additional Funds Needed):Key Assumptions • Operating at full capacity in 2006. • Each type of asset grows proportionally with sales. • Payables and accruals grow proportionally with sales. • 2006 profit margin ($54/$2,000 = 2.70%) and payout (40%) will be maintained. • Sales are expected to increase by $500 million.

  8. Definitions of Variables in AFN • A*/S0: assets required to support sales; called capital intensity ratio. • ∆S: increase in sales. • L*/S0: spontaneous liabilities ratio • M: profit margin (Net income/sales) • RR: retention ratio; percent of net income not paid as dividend.

  9. Assets Assets = 0.5 sales 1,250  Assets = (A*/S0)Sales = 0.5($500) = $250. 1,000 Sales 0 2,000 2,500 A*/S0 = $1,000/$2,000 = 0.5 = $1,250/$2,500. Assets vs. Sales

  10. If assets increase by $250 million, what is the AFN? AFN = (A*/S0)∆S - (L*/S0)∆S - M(S1)(RR) AFN = ($1,000/$2,000)($500) - ($100/$2,000)($500) - 0.0270($2,500)(1 - 0.4) AFN = $184.5 million.

  11. How would increases in these items affect the AFN? • Higher sales: • Increases asset requirements, increases AFN. • Higher dividend payout ratio: • Reduces funds available internally, increases AFN. (More…)

  12. Higher profit margin: • Increases funds available internally, decreases AFN. • Higher capital intensity ratio, A*/S0: • Increases asset requirements, increases AFN. • Pay suppliers sooner: • Decreases spontaneous liabilities, increases AFN.

  13. Projecting Pro Forma Statements with the Percent of Sales Method • Project sales based on forecasted growth rate in sales • Forecast some items as a percent of the forecasted sales • Costs • Cash • Accounts receivable (More...)

  14. Items as percent of sales (Continued...) • Inventories • Net fixed assets • Accounts payable and accruals • Choose other items • Debt • Dividend policy (which determines retained earnings) • Common stock

  15. Sources of Financing Needed to Support Asset Requirements • Given the previous assumptions and choices, we can estimate: • Required assets to support sales • Specified sources of financing • Additional funds needed (AFN) is: • Required assets minus specified sources of financing

  16. Implications of AFN • If AFN is positive, then you must secure additional financing. • If AFN is negative, then you have more financing than is needed. • Pay off debt. • Buy back stock. • Buy short-term investments.

  17. How to Forecast Interest Expense • Interest expense is actually based on the daily balance of debt during the year. • There are three ways to approximate interest expense. Base it on: • Debt at end of year • Debt at beginning of year • Average of beginning and ending debt More…

  18. Basing Interest Expense on Debt at End of Year • Will over-estimate interest expense if debt is added throughout the year instead of all on January 1. • Causes circularity called financial feedback: more debt causes more interest, which reduces net income, which reduces retained earnings, which causes more debt, etc. More…

  19. Basing Interest Expense on Debt at Beginning of Year • Will under-estimate interest expense if debt is added throughout the year instead of all on December 31. • But doesn’t cause problem of circularity. More…

  20. Basing Interest Expense on Average of Beginning and Ending Debt • Will accurately estimate the interest payments if debt is added smoothly throughout the year. • But has problem of circularity. More…

  21. A Solution that Balances Accuracy and Complexity • Base interest expense on beginning debt, but use a slightly higher interest rate. • Easy to implement • Reasonably accurate • See Ch 09E Toolkit.xls for an example basing interest expense on average debt.

  22. Percent of Sales: Inputs

  23. Other Inputs

  24. 2007 First-Pass Forecasted Income Statement

  25. 2007 Balance Sheet (Assets)

  26. 2007 Preliminary Balance Sheet (Claims)

  27. What are the additional funds needed (AFN)? • Required assets = $1,250.0 • Specified sources of fin. = $1,062.8 • Forecast AFN: $1,250 - $1,062.8 = $187.2 • NWC must have the assets to make forecasted sales, and so it needs an equal amount of financing. So, we must secure another $187.2 of financing.

  28. Assumptions about how AFN will be raised • No new common stock will be issued. • Any external funds needed will be raised as debt, 50% notes payable, and 50% L-T debt.

  29. How will the AFN be financed? • Additional notes payable =0.5 ($187.2) = $93.6. • Additional L-T debt = 0.5 ($187.2) = $93.6.

  30. 2007 Balance Sheet (Claims)

  31. Equation AFN = $184.5 vs. Pro Forma AFN = $187.2. • Equation method assumes a constant profit margin. • Pro forma method is more flexible. More important, it allows different items to grow at different rates.

  32. Forecasted Ratios

  33. What are the forecasted free cash flow and ROIC?

  34. Proposed Improvements

  35. Impact of Improvements (see Ch 09 Mini Case.xls for details)

  36. Capacity sales = Actual sales % of capacity $2,000 0.75 = = $2,667. With the existing fixed assets, sales could be $2,667. Since sales are forecasted at only $2,500, no new fixed assets are needed. If 2006 fixed assets had been operated at 75% of capacity:

  37. How would the excess capacity situation affect the 2007 AFN? • The previously projected increase in fixed assets was $125. • Since no new fixed assets will be needed, AFN will fall by $125, to: $187.2 - $125 = $62.2.

  38. 1,100 1,000  Declining A/S Ratio Assets Base Stock Sales 0 2,000 2,500 $1,000/$2,000 = 0.5; $1,100/$2,500 = 0.44. Declining ratio shows economies of scale. Going from S = $0 to S = $2,000 requires $1,000 of assets. Next $500 of sales requires only $100 of assets. Economies of Scale

  39. 1,500 1,000 Assets 500 Sales 500 1,000 2,000 A/S changes if assets are lumpy. Generally will have excess capacity, but eventually a small S leads to a large A. Lumpy Assets

  40. Summary: How different factors affect the AFN forecast. • Excess capacity: lowers AFN. • Economies of scale: leads to less-than-proportional asset increases. • Lumpy assets: leads to large periodic AFN requirements, recurring excess capacity.