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Chapter 7
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Chapter 7

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  1. Chapter 7 History of US and Canada

  2. North America before the Europeans • Native Americans came to North America thousands of years ago by crossing a land bridge • Beringia: a land bridge thought to have connected what is now Alaska and Russia • Many of the Native nations were nomads who moved from place to place in search of food such as the Sioux and Apaches • Some stayed in a place and were farmers such as the Seminole and Cherokee • However everything changed when the Europeans started coming here in the 1500’s

  3. The Coming of the Spaniards • The Spanish were the first people to come and settle in North America in the early 1500’s • They moved up from their bases in Mexico and started taking over North America setting up missions wherever they went • Missionaries: religious people who want to covert others to their religion • Missions were the size of forts in the Old Spanish realm and were the center of power in an area and built the first settlement at St. Augustine • St. Augustine: first permanent European settlement in the United States founded by the Spanish in 1565

  4. St. Augustine

  5. Yangeez & Francee • The English and the French came to America about 100 years after the Spanish and they also wanted to settle America • Quebec City: first permanent European settlement in Canada founded by the French in 1608 • Jamestown: first permanent English settlement founded in 1607 • The English created a series of 13 colonies that were along the Atlantic coast, the colonies soon became a great source of wealth for England

  6. Quebec City

  7. Jamestown

  8. Life in the 13 colonies • Most people who lived in the 13 colonies were farmers and or skilled tradesman who owned business • People who owned large farms were known as planters and their farms were known as plantations • The people who worked on these plantations were either slaves imported from Africa or indentured servants imported from Europe • Indentured servants: people who had to work for a period of years to gain freedom • Indentured servants were usually poor people in Europe who agreed to move to America and work for a planter • The indentured servants worked for a planter for 7 years then they were given their freedom and were given free land out west • Slaves never were freed and worked forever in bondage

  9. Slave Cabins – South Carolina

  10. Slave Cabins

  11. War over America • Over 100 years Britain and France fought a series of wars over who would control the continent, the last was the French and Indian War • French and Indian War: war that made Britain the dominate power in North America • After the French and Indian War Britain took control of Canada and Florida • However after winning the French and Indian War the British found that their colonists in America were ready to rebel against their rule • The beginning of the end was in 1763 when the British declared that Americans could not move into the new western terrorities

  12. North America 1750

  13. The Beginnings of a Revolution • The American Revolution began when American colonists began to refuse to buy British goods thus beginning a boycott • Boycott: a refusal to buy goods • The boycotts started with stamps and tea but soon it moved into a full scale revolt • Americans were especially angry about their inability to vote on taxes and “taxation without representation” was the slogan of the American revolution • The revolutionary war lasted from 1775-1783 and when it was over the United States of America was founded • The Treaty of Paris which ended the war gave the US all British territory east of the Mississippi River, and gave Florida back to Spain who was an ally of the US during the war

  14. The Growth of the New Nation • As the US grew in the 1800’s Americans gained new lands and Americans were ready to settle the West • The first major expansion was the Louisiana Purchase • Louisiana Purchase:the territory including the region between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains that the US purchased from France in 1803 • The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the US and as the US gained more land they also gained the Natives who lived on them • Soon after gaining the lands of the Louisiana Purchase the 5 Civilized Tribes were removed from their homes back east with the Indian Removal Act of 1830 • Indian Removal Act: law that moved the 5 Civilized Tribes to Oklahoma

  15. North America 1803

  16. The 5 Civilized Tribes

  17. Trail of Tears

  18. Manifest Destiny • In the 1830’s in the US a new term came to be popular in America known as Manifest Destiny • Manifest Destiny: the idea that the US should stretch from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific coast • Many Americans believed that the US government should do whatever it took to fulfill its destiny and as a result America added more lands • First buying/stealing Florida from Spain in 1819 • Then the US annexed Texas and got the Oregon Territory from Canada in 1845 • To finish the job on the mainland the US went to war with Mexico in 1846 and then got all Mexican territory north of the Rio Grande • In 1867 the US bought Alaska from Russia, and annexed Hawaii in 1889

  19. The Growth of the US

  20. The US 1840-1860 • As the new nation grew the nation separated over economic issues, the North became an industrial base with hundreds of factories and the South stayed as a home of agriculture • Industrial Revolution: the change from making goods by hand to making them by machine • The Industrial Revolution produced huge cities with factories and railroads to the connect these factories up North • The Industrial Revolution impacted the South with the invention of the cotton gin, which increased a demand for cotton and slaves • As a result the planter class grew and more people became extremely rich and cotton became known as King Cotton in what is called the antebellum period • Antebellum: the period of time before the US Civil War

  21. Industrial Factories

  22. Child Labor

  23. Map of Railroads 1860

  24. Map of King Cotton

  25. Antebellum Plantation

  26. Slave Family

  27. Leading up to Civil War • During the antebellum years the US was divided into two sets of states; free states (North) and slave states (South) • Some people in the free states wanted to see slavery abolished in the slave states • Abolitionists: people who believed that slavery was wrong and wanted to end, or abolish its practice • Only a small group of Northerners wanted to abolish slavery but most Southerners fiercely guared their rights to own slaves • By 1860 the conflict over slavery split the nation with the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the US

  28. Green – Free, Red – Slave, Brown -TBD

  29. The Civil War • After Lincoln was elected many Southerners feared that he would free the slaves so they succeed or left the US and started their own government known as the Confederacy led by Jeff Davis of Mississippi • Confederacy: government of the Southern states during US Civil War • Jefferson Davis: president of the Confederacy • The Civil War was the most destructive war in American history, more Americans died in the Civil War than during the Revolution, War of 1812, the Indian Wars, Spanish-American, World War I and II, Korea and Vietnam COMBINED!!! • In the end the slaves were freed, the US was restored and America was finally the land of the free

  30. Map of Confederacy

  31. Civil War Films:

  32. The All time classic!

  33. After the Civil War • After the Civil War the US was put back together in a period known as Reconstruction • Reconstruction: the rebuilding of America after the Civil War • During the Reconstruction period laws were written in the Southern states to limit the rights of freed slaves and other blacks • These laws were known as Jim Crow laws and were meant to segregate the peoples of the South • Segregate: to separate people • Segregation was the law in the South from Reconstruction up until the 1960’s, blacks and whites went to separate schools, churches, restrooms, everything was separate

  34. Separate water fountains

  35. Segregation

  36. Post Civil War America • After the Civil War ended, millions of immigrants flocked to the US from all over the world giving it one of the strongest labor forces • Labor force: supply of workers • The US labor force was supplied by immigrants who flocked to the US in hopes of getting free land out West • To encourage settlement in the Western territories the US government passed the Homestead Act of 1862 • Homestead Act: law that gave free land to Americans out West • The Homestead Act helped get enough people living in all of the Western states and by 1912 all of the territories in the West were made into full states in US • America was mostly at peace other than the Spanish American War from the period of 1865 -1917 until the US joined the Allies in World War I

  37. Homestead Act