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Chapter 7 PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

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  1. Chapter 7 Understanding and Supporting Hard Drives

  2. You Will Learn… • About hard drive technologies • How communication with hard drive BIOS is accomplished • How a hard drive is logically organized to hold data • How to install a hard drive • How to troubleshoot hard drives

  3. Hard Drive Technology • Technology of how the hard drive interfaces with the system • Technology used within the hard drive to read and write data to the drive

  4. Types of Hard Drive Interfaces • EIDE standards • Other interface standards • SCSI • IEEE 1394 • Fibre Channel

  5. IDE Channels on a Motherboard

  6. How Hard Drives Work • Platter(s) are stacked together and spin in unison • Read/write heads are controlled by an actuator and move in unison across disk surfaces as disks rotate on a spindle • Require hard drive controller for instructions

  7. Hard Drive with Four Platters

  8. IDE Technology • Most hard drives use IDE standards

  9. Tracks and Sectors on IDE Drive • Older MFM and RLL technologies • Have either 17 or 26 sectors per track over entire drive platter • All tracks contain same number of bytes • IDE drives use zone bit recording formatting system • Number of sectors per track is not the same throughout the platter • Tracks near center have smallest number of sectors per track

  10. Older Technologies

  11. Zone Bit Recording

  12. IDE Drives • Low-level formatting • Track and sector markings are written on hard drive at the factory • High-level formatting (OS formatting) • Executed by the OS • Creating a boot sector, FAT, and root directory

  13. Hard Drive Manufacturers

  14. Communicating with the Hard Drive BIOS • Calculating drive capacity on older drives • Adjusting for more complex hard drive organization • Calculating capacity on newer drives • CHS or normal mode • Translation methods • ECHS mode or large mode • LBA mode

  15. Calculating Drive Capacity on Older Drives

  16. Installations Using Legacy BIOS • Let the BIOS see the drive as a smaller drive • Upgrade the BIOS • Upgrade entire motherboard • Use software that interfaces between older BIOS and large-capacity drive • Use an adapter card that provides the BIOS to substitute for system BIOS

  17. How System BIOS Helps Manage Data Transfer • Provides interrupt handler for software interrupts • Automatically detects/configures hard drive • Helps manage data transfer over I/O bus between hard drive and memory • Using PIO mode, CPU is in charge • Using DMA with DMA controller in charge (no CPU involvement) • With bus mastering using DMA, hard drive BIOS controls data transfer

  18. How a Hard Drive Is Logically Organized to Hold Data • Requirements to boot from hard drive and get to a command prompt: • Drive must have track and sector markings written on it • A file system must be installed • Files needed to boot the PC must be copied to root directory of drive

  19. How a Hard Drive Is Logically Organized to Hold Data • Steps for preparing a hard drive to hold files (after physical installation) • Low-level format • Partition hard drive • High-level format

  20. Hard Drive Partitions and Logical Drives • Partitions • High-level divisions • Logical drives (volumes) • Further division of partitions • Have letters assigned to them • Each has its own file system (eg, FAT16, FAT32)

  21. Drive Partitions and Logical Drives

  22. Contents of a Partition Table

  23. How Many Logical Drives?

  24. When to Partition a Drive • When installing a new hard drive • If existing hard drive is giving errors • If you suspect a virus has attacked the drive • To wipe hard drive clean and install new OS

  25. What Happens During Formatting • OS format for each logical drive creates these file system items at beginning of each logical drive: • OS boot record • FAT • Root directory

  26. Layout for the Boot Record

  27. Disk Type and Descriptor Byte

  28. Installing a Hard Drive • Set jumpers or DIP switches on drive; physically install drive inside case; attach power cord and data cable • Inform CMOS setup of new drive, or verify that autodetect correctly detected the drive • Use Fdisk utility to create partition(s) on drive; divide extended partition into logical drives • Use Format command to high-level format each logical drive • Install OS and other software

  29. Prepare for Installation • Read documentation • Plan drive configuration • Prepare work area and take precautions

  30. Prepare for Installation

  31. Set Jumpers and DIP Switches

  32. Set Jumpers and DIP Switches

  33. Set Jumpers and DIP Switches

  34. Mount Drive in the Bay

  35. Mount Drive in the Bay

  36. Mount Drive in the Bay

  37. Mount Drive in the Bay

  38. Mount Drive in the Bay

  39. Mount Drive in the Bay

  40. Mount Drive in the Bay

  41. If Bay Is Too Large

  42. Use CMOS Setup to Change Hard Drive Settings

  43. Use CMOS Setup to Change Hard Drive Settings

  44. Use CMOS Setup to Change Hard Drive Settings

  45. Use CMOS Setup to Change Hard Drive Settings

  46. Use Fdisk to Partition a Drive

  47. Use Fdisk to Partition a Drive

  48. Use Fdisk to Partition a Drive

  49. Format Each Logical Drive • Format C:/S • Format D: • Format E: