WEATHER, CLIMATE, & ATMOSPHERE
Earth’s Relationship with the Sun • Most of the Earth’s energy comes from the Sun. • This type of energy is called solar energy. Solar energy reaches Earth in two ways: • Light • Heat • What are some ways solar energy affects things here on Earth? • The clothes we wear, the homes we live in, the foods we grow & eat, and which sports we play
Earth’s Relationship with the Sun (Continued) • Three different relationships between Earth and the sun control how much solar energy is received at different locations: • Rotation • Revolution • Tilt
Rotation, Revolution, & Tilt • Rotation – the Earth rotates on its axis every 24 hours. This causes night and day. • Revolution – the Earth revolves around the sun every year (365 ¼ days). • Tilt – the Earth is tilted 23 1/2˚. The tilt of the earth’s axis determines the amount of solar energy that different places receive during the year.
Solar Energy & Latitude • Different places on Earth receive different amounts of energy. • Tropics – areas near the equator receive a lot of solar energy and are warm all year. The tropics are in the low-latitudes. • Polar regions – areas at the high latitudes that receive very little sun and are cold most of the time. • Middle latitudes – are the areas between the polar regions and the tropics. Temperatures vary depending on the time of year.
The Seasons • Season – the time of greater or lesser heat. • 4 total – summer, fall, winter, and spring • Summer – daytime lasts longer and the sun’s energy is stronger. • Fall & Spring – daylight & darkness are equal in length and the Sun’s energy is more evenly distributed • The tilt of the Earth’s axis causes the Northern & Southern hemispheres to have opposite seasons at the same time of year.
Solstice • Occurs twice in a year • June 21st - summer – the longest day of year • December 21st - winter – the shortest day of the year • Earth’s poles tilt toward or away from the sun.
EQUINOX • Days and nights are equal • The direct rays of the sun strike the equator. • Sept 22 – Fall • March 21 – spring
Difference between Weather & Climate Weather – conditions in the atmosphere from day to day. Climate – conditions in the atmosphere over a long period of time. Ex. -Tropical Rain forest
Just as the weather differs from day to day, the climate differs from place to place. Seattle, WA Houston, TX Phoenix, AZ Barrow, AK Cool Warm Hot Cold Moist Moist Dry Dry CO-115.0
Just Checking 1. What is weather? 2. What is climate? 3. How are weather and climate different? CO-116.0
Two important elements of weather and climate are: precipitation and temperature • Precipitation includes all forms of moisture falling to the surface of the earth. (Examples: rain, sleet, snow, hail) • Temperature is how warm or cool the air is outside. CO-117.0
GLOBAL CLIMATES • Classified by precipitation , temperature, & vegetation • LATITUDE – most influence
LOW LATITUDE • Desert • Savanna • Rainforest • steppe
Middle Latitude • Marine West Coast • Humid continental • Mediterranean • Humid subtropical
High latitude • Icecap • Subarctic • Tundra • Highland