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P-N Junctions

P-N Junctions

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P-N Junctions

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  1. P-N Junctions ECE 663

  2. So far we learned the basics of semiconductor physics, culminating • in the Minority Carrier Diffusion Equation • We now encounter our simplest electronic device, a diode • Understanding the principle requires the ability to draw band-diagrams • Making this quantitative requires ability to solve MCDE • (only exponentials!) • Here we only do the equilibrium analysis ECE 663

  3. P-N junction diode I V ECE 663

  4. P-N junction diode I V I = I0(eqV/hkT-1) Ip0 = q(ni2/ND) (Lp/tp) pn v ECE 663

  5. P-N Junctions - Equilibrium What happens when these bandstructures collide? • Fermi energy must be constant at equilibrium, so bands • must bend near interface • Far from the interface, bandstructures must revert ECE 663

  6. Time < 0: Pieces separated ECE 663

  7. ECE 663

  8. Gradients drive diffusion left ECE 663

  9. Gradients drive diffusion ECE 663

  10. - - - + - + - + - + - + - + - - + + - + + + But charges can’t venture too far from the interface because their Coulomb forces pull them back! ECE 663

  11. Separation of a sea of charge, leaving behind a charge depleted region ECE 663 http://scott.club365.net/uploaded_images/Moses-Parts-the-Red-Sea-2-782619.jpg

  12. Resulting in a barrier across a depletion region ECE 663

  13. E Depletion Region E ECE 663

  14. How much is the Built-in Voltage? N side P side ECE 663

  15. How much is the Built-in Voltage? Na acceptor level on the p side Nd donor level on the n side ECE 663

  16. Special case: One-sided Junctions • One side very heavily doped so that Fermi level is at band edge. • e.g. p+-n junction (heavy B implant into lightly doped substrate) ECE 663

  17. How wide is the depletion region? ECE 663

  18. Depletion Approximation-step junction  x ECE 663

  19. Depletion approximation-step junction Exponentials replaced with step-functions ECE 663

  20. Doping Charge Density Electric Field Electrostatic Potential NAxp = NDxn = WD/(NA-1 + ND-1) Kse0Em = -qNAxp = -qNDxn = -qWD/(NA-1 + ND-1) Vbi = ½|Em|WD ECE 663

  21. Depletion Width ECE 663

  22. Maximum Field Em = 2qVbi/kse0(NA-1+ND-1) ECE 663

  23. How far does Wd extend into each junction? Depletion width on the n-side depends on the doping on the p-side Depletion width on the p-side depends on the doping on the n-side e.g. if NA>>ND then xn>>xp One-sided junction ECE 663

  24. ECE 663

  25. ECE 663

  26. P-N Junction with applied voltage ECE 663

  27. Reverse Bias • +Voltage to the n side and –Voltage to the p side: Depletion region will be larger ECE 663

  28. Reverse Bias Band Diagram ECE 663

  29. Reverse Bias depletion Applied voltage disturbs equilibrium EF no longer constant Reverse bias adds to the effect of built-in voltage ECE 663

  30. Forward Bias + - Negative voltage to n side positive to p side More electrons supplied to n, more holes to p Depletion region gets smaller ECE 663

  31. Forward Bias Depletion ECE 663

  32. General Expression • Convention = Vappl= + for forward bias Vappl= - for reverse bias ECE 663

  33. Positive voltage pulls bands down- bands are plots of electron energy n = nie(Fn-Ei)/kT Fp Fn p = nie(Ei-Fp)/kT Fermi level is not constant  Current Flow ECE 663

  34. In summary A p-n junction at equilibrium sees a depletion width and a built-in potential barrier. Their values depend on the individual doping concentrations Forward biasing the junction shrinks the depletion width and the barrier, allowing thermionic emission and higher current. The current is driven by the splitting of the quasi-Fermi levels Reverse biasing the junction extends the depletion width and the barrier, cutting off current and creating a strong I-V asymmetry In the next lecture, we’ll make this analysis quantitative by solving the MCDE with suitable boundary conditions