GENERAL EQUIPMENT RULESp. 32 • Food Equipment Can Be Dangerous • Not All Models Are Alike • Cleaning Is Part of the Operating Procedure • Conserve Energy • Your Hands are the Best Tools NEED TO BE FAMILIAR WITH NAMES OF AND BASIC PROCEDURES FOR USING ALL LARGE EQUIPMENT SHOWN DURING KITCHEN TOUR
EFFECTS OF HEAT ON FOODPages 52 - 51 • PROTEINS • CARBOHYDRATES • FRUIT AND VEGETABLE FIBER • FATS • MINERALS, VITAMINS, PIGMENTS, FLAVORCOMPONENTS • MAY LEACH, DISSOLVE, OR BE DESTROYED BY COOKING * COAGULATION * CONNECTIVE TISSUES * ACIDS * CARMELIZATION * GELATINIZATION * SOLID VS. LIQUID * SMOKE POINT, FLASH POINT
METHODS OF HEAT TRANSFERPages 53 - 54 • Conduction • Convection • Radiation • Infared • Microwave • Induction
MOIST HEAT COOKING METHODSPages 55 - 57, Summary – Page 62 • BOIL - To cook in rapidly bubbling liquid - 212° F • SIMMER - To cook in a gently bubbling liquid - 185°F - 205°F • POACH - To cook in a liquid, usually a small amount, that is hot, but not actually bubbling - 160°F - 180°F • BLANCH - To cook an item partially and very briefly • STEAM - To cook foods by exposing them directly to steam • BRAISE - A combination cooking method. To cook covered in a small amount of liquid, after preliminarybrowning.
DRY HEAT COOKING METHODSPages 57 - 59, Summary – Page 62 • ROAST and BAKE - To cook foods by surrounding with hot dry air • Cook uncovered • Roast on a rack • BROIL - To cook with radiant heat from above • GRILL - To cook on an open grid over a heat source • BARBECUE - Roast or grill using wood
DRY HEAT WITH FAT COOKING METHODSPages 59 - 61, Summary – Page 62 • SAUTE - To cook quickly in a small amount of fat - Pre-heat pan • Do not overcrowd pan • Dredge meats, chicken, seafood with flour • May Deglaze pan • PAN-FRY - To cook in a moderate amount of fat over moderate heat • DEEP - FRY • Fry at proper temperatures • Don’t overload the baskets • Replace regularly, discard spent fat • Fry as close to service time as possible • Protect fat from its enemies
THE ART OF SEASONING AND FLAVORINGPages 64 - 69 • SEASONING - Enhancing the natural flavor of the food without significantly changing it. The last step of any recipe is “ADJUST THE SEASONING”. • FLAVORING - Adding a new flavor to the food, changing or modifying the original flavor. • HERBS - The leaves of certain plants • SPICES - Buds, fruits, flowers, bark, seeds, and roots of plants and trees
KNIFE CUTSPages 114 - 118 • JULIENNE/ ALLUMETTE - 1/8 X 1/8 X 2 1/2 inches • BATONNET - 1/4 X 1/4 X 2 1/2 - 3 inches • BRUNOISE - 1/8 X 1/8 X 1/8 inch • SMALL DICE - 1/4 X 1/4 X 1/4 inch • MEDIUM DICE - 1/2 X 1/2 X 1/2 inch • LARGE DICE - 3/4 X 3/4 X 3/4 inch
KNIFE CUTSPAGES 114 - 118 • RONDELLE - Round Slice • CHIFFONADE - Very thin shreds • MINCED - Very small pieces • CONCASSE - Rough chop, usually with tomatoes
Stocks • A clear, thin liquid flavored by soluble substance extracted from meat, poultry, and fish, and their bones, and from vegetables and seasonings.
STOCK INGREDIENTSPages 126 - 128 • BONES - With lots of collagen, which breaks down into gelatin • MIREPOIX - Two parts onion, one part carrot, one part celery • ACID PRODUCTS • WATER • BOUQUET GARNI SALT • SACHET
STOCK PROCEDURESPages 128 - 134 • WHITE STOCK - Rinse/Blanch Bones ??? • BROWN STOCK - Brown Bones and Mirepoix • Cover With Cold Water • Skim • Simmer for appropriate length of time • Strain, Cool, Refrigerate • Remove Fat Before Using
REDUCTIONPAGE 140 • Done through EVAPORATION • Concentrates basic flavors • Adjusts texture • Adds new flavor • By half, au sec, etc.
Procedure 1. Reduce stock over medium heat. 2. Skim the surface frequently. 3. Strain into a smaller, heavy saucepan and continue to reduce over low heat. 4. Pour into containers, cool, cover, and refrigerate. Glazes
Understanding Sauces (Functions) • Adds- Moistness • Adds- Flavor • Adds- Richness • Enhances- Appearance • Adds- Interest & Appetite appeal
Understanding Sauces(Structure) • A liquid, the body of the sauce. • A thickening agent. • Additional seasoning & flavoring ingredients.
THICKENING AGENTSPAGES 134 - 139 • ROUX - Cooked mixture of fat and flour • White • Blond • Brown • BEURRE MANIE • SLURRY • Cornstarch • Arrowroot • BREAD CRUMBS, RICE • LIAISON • EMULSIFICATION
Quality Standards • Consistency & Body • Flavor • Appearance
OTHER SAUCE TERMSPAGES 140 - 141 • STRAINING • DEGLAZING • ENRICHING • MONTER AU BEURRE
Pan Gravy • 1. Remove the roast from pan. • 2. Clarify the fat. • 3. Deglaze the pan. • 4. Combine with stock and simmer. • 5. Thicken the gravy. • 6. Strain. • 7. Adjust seasonings.
SOUPS • CLEAR SOUPS – Unthickened soups • Broth or Bouillon • Vegetable • Consommé – a rich stock, clarified to make it perfectly clear and transparent • SPECIALTY SOUPS – Native to a particular country or region or contain unusual ingredients
SOUPS • THICK SOUPS – Opaque rather than transparent • Cream Soups – thickened with starch • Purées – naturally thickened by pureeing • Bisque – shellfish soup • Chowders – normally contain milk and potatoes
SOUPS • Three methods of making Cream Soups • Simmer vegetables in already thickened Velouté or Bechamel Sauce • Saute vegetables, add flour to make a chunky roux, add stock and simmer. • Simmer vegetables in stock, add roux, simmer until thickened.
SOUPS • Last Steps for making Cream Soups • Puree soup • Strain, if desired • If holding for later service, stop at this step. Cool, refrigerate, and reheat soup before next step. • Add stock, milk, or cream to reach desired consistency • Adjust seasonings
SOUPS • SERVICE OF SOUPS • Serve at proper temperature • Portion sizes • Appetizer: 6 to 8 oz • Main Course: 10 to 12 oz • Reheat in small batches • Use appropriate garnishes, toppings, and accompaniments
GENERAL RULES OF VEGETABLE COOKERYPage 434 - 435 • Don’t Overcook. • Cook as close to service time as possible. • If must be cooked ahead, undercook, shock, and reheat at service time. • Cut vegetables uniformly. • Start with boiling, salted water. • Cook green and strong-flavored vegetables uncovered. • Cook red and white vegetables in slightly acid liquid. Cook green vegetables in neutral liquid. • Do not mix batches of cooked vegetables.
POTATOES AND OTHER STARCHESCHAPTER 18 • Waxy versus Starchy Potatoes • Types of Rice – Regular Milled White Rice (Enriched, Short-grain, Medium Grain, Long Grain), Converted, Brown, Arborio, Basmati, Jasmine, etc. • Rice Cooking Methods - Boiling & Steaming (1,2,3 proportions ?), Pasta , Pilaf, Risotto. • Pasta – use 1 gallon water per pound of pasta. Cook al dente.
HANDLING VEGETABLESP. 435 - 445 • Scrubbing • Washing • Proper procedures for leafy greens • Draining/ Storing • Soaking • Peeling and Cutting • Treating Vegetables that Brown Easily
FOOD PRESENTATIONPages 698 - 699 • Balance – Colors, Shapes, Textures, Flavors • Match Portion Sizes and Plates. • Balance the Portion Sizes of Various Items on the Plate
ARRANGEMENT ON THE PLATEPages 699 - 701 • Keep food off the rim of the plate. • Arrange items for the convenience of the customer. • Keep space between items. • Maintain unity. • Make the garnish count. • Don’t drown items in sauce. • Keep it Simple.
SALADS AND SALAD DRESSINGSPages 538 - 540, 569 - 575 • Salad Structure – Base, Body, Garnish, Dressing • Arrangement – Regular rules + Use Height, Make Every Ingredient Identifiable, Use Cold Plates • Dressings – Oil, Acids, Flavoring Ingredients • Temporary vs. Permanent Emulsions • French Dressing = Basic Vinaigrette = 3 parts Oil to 1 part Vinegar
POULTRYPages 298 – 309 • Most important selection factor is Maturity. • Chart – page 301 • Use broiler/fryers or roasters for dry heat methods, hens for moist heat cooking.
Guidelines for Handling and Storing Poultry • Use fresh poultry within 24 hours of receiving. • Keep fresh poultry on ice. • Store frozen poultry at 0°F (–18ºC) or lower. • Do not refreeze. Transparency 12-3
LIGHT MEAT Less fat Less connective tissue Cooks faster DARK MEAT More fat More connective tissue Cooks more slowly Two Parts of Poultry Transparency 12-1
Roasting and Baking Poultry • Season skin only. • Roasting • Large = Low Temperature = 250 – 325O F, • Medium = Searing Method = Start at 450O F, then turn down to low heat • Small = High Heat = 450O F Transparency 13-1
How to Cook the Legs to Doneness Without Overcooking the Breast • Roast breast-down for part of the roasting period. • Baste with fat only. • Bard (cover the breast with a thin layer of pork fat). • Separate the breast from the leg sections and roast each for a different amount of time. Transparency 12-2
How to Tell When Poultry Is Done • Cook most poultry until it is well done. • Cook to an internal temperature of 165°F (82ºC) for large birds. • Joints should move freely in their sockets, and flesh should separate from the bone. • Juices should run clear.
Broiling and Grilling Poultry • use lower temperatures. • start skin-side down. Follow the same procedures as those for meat, but:
Simmering and Poaching • Simmering— For older birds --Liquid is just below the boiling point and bubbling gently. • Poaching— For younger birds, chicken breasts --Temperature is even lower, liquid doesn’t bubble, and less liquid is used.
FINFISH – MARKET FORMS • Whole • Drawn • Dressed • Steaks • Fillets • Sticks
Saltwater Fish FLAT • Flounder • Sole • Halibut • Turbot
ROUND Sea bass Bluefish Cod Grouper Haddock John dory Mackerel Mahi-mahi Monkfish Ocean perch Orange roughy Pompano Red snapper Salmon Saltwater Fish • Shark • Skate • Striped bass • Swordfish • Tilefish • Triggerfish • Tuna • Whiting
Freshwater Fish • Catfish • Perch • Pike • Tilapia • Trout • Whitefish
FROZEN FISH Store at 0ºF (–18ºC) or colder. Keep well wrapped. Rotate stock. Thaw in refrigerator, and do not refreeze. FRESH FISH Store on crushed ice or refrigerate at 30ºF to 34ºF Wrap fish or leave in original moisture-proof wrap. Use fish within 48 hours of receiving. General Guidelines for Handling and Storing Fish
Types of Mollusks • Oysters • Clams • Mussels • Scallops • Squid • Octopus Mollusks should have tightly closed shells, which indicates they’re alive. Do not store on ice.
Types of Crustaceans • Lobsters • Rock lobsters • Shrimp • Crabs • Crayfish Crustaceans' legs and claws should move slightly. Shrimp should be solidly frozen and smell sweet, not fishy.
How to Tell When Fish Is Done • Fish has very little connective tissue so it cooks quickly, has to be handled carefully, moist heat methods preserve moisture. • Most common problem is Overcooking. Fish separates into flakes. • Fish is done when: • Flesh separates from the bone (if present). • Bone is no longer pink. • Flesh is opaque.
General Rule for Baking Fish • Bake at 350°F to 400°F (175ºC to 200ºC) for 10 minutes per inch of thickness.
General Rules for Broiling Fish • Do not overcook! • Use small slices and fat fish for best results. • Broil thick cuts on both sides; broil thin pieces on one side only.