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Tom Wilson University of Tennessee Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering PowerPoint Presentation
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Tom Wilson University of Tennessee Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Tom Wilson University of Tennessee Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

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Tom Wilson University of Tennessee Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

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  1. Organization and Control of AI Robotic Systems:An Introduction to AI Robotic ArchitecturesIRIS Laboratory Group Presentation March 8, 2005 Tom Wilson University of Tennessee Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Imaging, Robotics, & Intelligent Systems Laboratory

  2. Presentation Outline A.Introduction and Overview of Tasks B. Current Research Part I: Organization of Intelligence 1. Definition of Architecture for AI Robotics 2. Paradigms a. Hierarchical b. Reactive c. Hybrid Part II: Reference Architectures 1. Nested Hierarchical Controller - Meystel 2. Real-time Control System - Albus 3. Subsumption 4. Potential Fields Part III: Applications to IRIS Modular Robotic System C. Future Work, Summary & Conclusion

  3. Introduction and Overview of Tasks:Research Area All Fall 2004andSpring 2005 research pertains to the development of a thesis on: Modular Robotic System (MRS)

  4. (Platforms) Introduction and Overview of Tasks:Research Area Modular Robotic System (MRS) (Sensors) (Systems) (Artificial Intelligence, Path Planning, Data Fusion, etc. ) (Thermal, Range, Visual, Radiological) (Andros, Packbot, Segway)

  5. Introduction and Overview of Tasks:Task 1: Develop Selected Internal Reports Outline for Modular Robotic System Thesis Chapter 1:Develop and Integrate the Opening Chapter on Robotic Architectures Chapter 2: Develop Operational Concept with Mission-Driven Modeling and Simulation A. Scenarios B. Modeling C. Simulation D. Performance Metrics Chapter 3:Define System Requirements, Conduct System Studies to Refine Existing Modular Design and System Configuration A. Mobility and Drive – Robert E. B. Processing and Fusion - Prashad C. Communications and Networking - Chung-Hao D. Power Sources and Management Chapter 4:Identify, Procure, and Integrate Sensors into Modular Robotics Platform A. Visible / LLTV - Anjana B. Imaging Infrared - Nikhil C. Gamma and Neutron Radiological Sensing D. Laser Range - Santosh E. Line CCD- Qian G. Radar – Venkat Chapter 5:System Management A. Communication and Networking (Bandwidth Management) - Chung-Hao B. Power Management C. Sensor Resource Allocation and Management Chapter 6: Navigation and Control A. Mobility Bricks B. Path Planning and Obstacle Avoidance & Negotiation – Chang+ Path Planning II – Gaurav Chapter 7: Prototyping and Evaluation A. Mechanical B. Electrical C. Software D. Integration – Rick K. E. Testing and Benchmarking Chapter 8: Documentation, Reporting, and Transition Planning

  6. Introduction and Overview of Tasks: Task 2: Robotic Architectures Report Chapter 1:Develop and Integrate the Opening Chapter on Robotic Architectures Chapter 2: Develop Operational Concept with Mission-Driven Modeling and Simulation A. Scenarios B. Modeling C. Simulation D. Performance Metrics Chapter 3:Define System Requirements, Conduct System Studies to Refine Existing Modular Design and System Configuration A. Mobility and Drive – Robert E. B. Processing and Fusion - Prashad C. Communications and Networking – Chung-Hao D. Power Sources and Management Chapter 4:Identify, Procure, and Integrate Sensors into Modular Robotics Platform A. Visible / LLTV - Anjana B. Imaging Infrared - Nikhil C. Gamma and Neutron Radiological Sensing D. Laser Range - Santosh E. Line CCD - Qian G. Radar - Venkat Chapter 5:System Management A. Communication and Networking (Bandwidth Management) - Chung-Hao B. Power Management C. Sensor Resource Allocation and Management Chapter 6: Navigation and Control A. Mobility Bricks B. Path Planning and Obstacle Avoidance & Negotiation – Chang + Path Planning II - Gaurav Chapter 7: Prototyping and Evaluation A. Mechanical B. Electrical C. Software D. Integration – Rick K. E. Testing and Benchmarking Chapter 8: Documentation, Reporting, and Transition Planning

  7. Mobility Intelligent Systems Sensors Introduction and Overview of Tasks: Task 2: Robotic Architectures Report IRIS Modular Robotic System

  8. Mobility Intelligent Systems Sensors Introduction and Overview of Tasks:MRS Thesis Task 2: Robotic Architectures Report Unorganized – no architecture IRIS Modular Robotic System

  9. Mobility Intelligent Systems Sensors Introduction and Overview of Tasks:MRS Thesis Task 2: Robotic Architectures Report Unorganized – no architecture IRIS Modular Robotic System

  10. Mobility Intelligent Systems Sensors Introduction and Overview of Tasks:MRS Thesis Task 2: Robotic Architectures Report Organized – Architecture acts as a framework IRIS Modular Robotic System

  11. Introduction and Overview of Tasks: Task 3 & 4: MRS Thesis Chapter 1:Develop and Integrate the Opening Chapter on Robotic Architectures Chapter 2: Develop Operational Concept with Mission-Driven Modeling and Simulation A. Scenarios B. Modeling C. Simulation D. Performance Metrics Chapter 3:Define System Requirements, Conduct System Studies to Refine Existing Modular Design and System Configuration A. Mobility and Drive – Robert E. B. Processing and Fusion - Prashad C. Communications and Networking – Chung-Hao D. Power Sources and Management Chapter 4:Identify, Procure, and Integrate Sensors into Modular Robotics Platform A. Visible / LLTV - Anjana B. Imaging Infrared - Nikhil C. Gamma and Neutron Radiological Sensing D. Laser Range - Santosh E. Line CCD - Qian G. Radar – Venkat Chapter 5:System Management A. Communication and Networking (Bandwidth Management) - Chung-Hao B. Power Management C. Sensor Resource Allocation and Management Chapter 6: Navigation and Control A. Mobility Bricks B. Path Planning and Obstacle Avoidance & Negotiation – Chang + Path Planning II – Gaurav Chapter 7: Prototyping and Evaluation A. Mechanical B. Electrical C. Software D. Integration – Rick K. E. Testing and Benchmarking Chapter 8: Documentation, Reporting, and Transition Planning

  12. Current Research:Organization of IntelligenceDefinition of Architecture Architecture: a principled way of organizing a system.

  13. Current Research:Organization of IntelligenceIntroduction to Paradigms (The most basic Architectural form) Consider: A calculus problem. Some problems are much easier to solve using: • Cartesian coordinates (x,y,z) versus • Polar coordinates (r,Θ)

  14. Current Research:Organization of IntelligenceIntroduction to Paradigms (The most basic Architectural form) • In the domain of calculus problems, Cartesian and polar coordinates represent two differentparadigmsfor viewing and manipulating a problem. Both produce the correct answer, but one takes less work for certain problems. • Applying the right paradigm makesproblem solving easier. Therefore, knowing the paradigms of AI robotics is one key to being able to successfully program a robot for a particular application.

  15. Current Research:Organization of IntelligencePrimitive Structures • For AI robotic systems, the paradigms are described in two ways: • 1:By the relationship between the three commonly acceptedprimitivesof robotics: Sense, Plan, Act. • 2: By the waysensory dataisprocessed and distributedthrough the system.

  16. Current Research:Organization of IntelligenceHierarchical Paradigm Sensors Extract Features Combine features into Model Plan Tasks Task Execution Motor Control Actuators 1. Sense 2. Plan 3. Act Hierarchical Paradigm: horizontal S, P, A decomposition.

  17. Sensors sense act act act sense sense sense act Current Research:Organization of IntelligenceReactive Paradigm build maps explore Actuators Reactive Paradigm: Vertical decomposition of tasks into a Sense-Act organization wander avoid collisions Behavior 1 Behavior 2 Behavior 3 Behavior 4

  18. Behavior percept Behavior percept Behavior Perceptual Schema Motor Schema Perceptual Schema Motor Schema Perceptual Schema Motor Schema percept Sensor 1 Sensor 2 Actuators Current Research:Organization of IntelligenceReactive Paradigm Behavior-specific sensing organization in the Reactive Paradigm: sensing is local, sensors can be shared, and sensors can be fused locally by a behavior.

  19. Behavior Behavior Behavior Behavior Sense Sense Sense Sense Act Act Act Act Current Research:Organization of IntelligenceReactive Paradigm act sense

  20. Sensors build maps explore Actuators wander sense sense sense act act act act sense avoid collisions Sensors Extract Features Combine features into Model Plan Tasks Task Execution Motor Control Actuators Sense Plan Act Hierarchical Paradigm - horizontal S,P, A decomposition Reactive Paradigm - vertical S,P, A decomposition

  21. Plan Act Sense Current Research:Organization of IntelligenceHybrid Deliberative/Reactive Paradigm

  22. Current Research:Reference ArchitecturesIntroduction • Ideally, anarchitectureisgeneric • A reference architecture is a sufficiently specific formulation such that hypotheses can be constructed, tested, and either validated or disproved.

  23. Current Research:Reference ArchitecturesIntroduction • Nested Hierarchical Controller (NHC) • developed by:Meystel. • Real-time Control System (RCS) • developed by:Albus(NIST). • (Teleoperation version is called NASREM)

  24. Sense Plan Mission Planner Navigator World Model/ Knowledge Base Pilot Act Low-level Controller drive steer sensors sensors sensors Current Research:Reference ArchitecturesNested Hierarchical Controller (NHC) Major Contribution: decomposition of PLANNING into three (3) different functions or subsystems aimed at supporting navigation.

  25. Current Research:Reference ArchitecturesReal-time Control System (RCS) • Fundamentals: • Albus(early 1960’s) noticed a problem: no common terms, no common set of design standards. • Albusdeveloped a very detailed architecture called the Real-time Control System Architecture (RCS) to serve as a guide for manufacturers who wanted to add moreintelligence to their robots. • RCS uses NHC in its design.

  26. Sample Activities Sense Plan Act Mission Planner Plan Plan Act Sense Sense Sense Navigator Plan Act Pilot Plan Sense Act Sense Model Act Current Research:Reference ArchitecturesReal-time Control System (RCS) RCS Reference Architecture hierarchical layering of sense-model-act.

  27. Sense Plan Value Judgment Changes and Events Simulated Plans task goals World Modeling Behavior Generation Sensory Perception perception, focus of attention plans, state of action Knowledge Database Act commanded actions Observed Input Current Research:Reference ArchitecturesReal-time Control System (RCS) RCS Reference Architecture hierarchical layering of sense-model-act.

  28. Summary, Future Work & Conclusion: • Summary: • Task 2 - research on AI Robotic Architectures • Phase 1 – Use authoritative texts (7) in robotic architecture to develop fundamental knowledge in the area of AI robotic architectures. • Phase 1 is at a conclusion. Authoritative Texts (7) Fundamental Aspects

  29. Summary, Future Work & Conclusion: • Future Work: • Task 2 - research on AI Robotic Architectures • Phase 2 – Use journal /conference publications to compile a survey of state-of-the-art implementations and theories in the field of robotic architecture. • Phase 2 has started. State-of-the-Art Aspects Journal Articles

  30. Fundamental Aspects State-of-the-Art Aspects Summary, Future Work & Conclusion: Conclusion: AI Robotic Architectures

  31. AI Robotic Arch. Fundamental Aspects State-of-the-Art Aspects Ch. 1 Summary, Future Work & Conclusion: Conclusion: Ch. 4 Ch.3 Ch. 5 Ch.2 MRS Ch. 6 Ch. 7 Ch. 8

  32. Summary, Future Work & Conclusion: Conclusion: Sense, Plan, Act Time Hierarchical S,P,A one-way Reactive S,P (no R) Hybrid P S A

  33. Summary, Future Work & Conclusion: Conclusion: Sense, Plan, Act Reactive Paradigm Potential Fields Reference Architecture Subsumption Reference Architecture Others

  34. Summary, Future Work & Conclusion: Conclusion: Sense, Plan, Act Hierarchical Paradigm Real-time Control System (RCS) Reference Architecture Nested Hierarchical Controller (NHC) Reference Architecture Others

  35. Questions? Architecture - a principled way of organizing a system. Paradigms (S, P, A) Hierarchical Reference Architectures Reactive Reference Architectures Hybrid Application Architectures