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Intelligence and Achievement

Intelligence and Achievement

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Intelligence and Achievement

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  1. Intelligence and Achievement

  2. What is Intelligence?? • IQ (Intelligence quotient) is an index of how people perform on a standardized intelligence test relative to others of the same age. • Non-scientists associate problem-solving ability, verbal ability and social competence with intelligence. • Three big questions: • Is IQ unitary (one general ability) or multi-faceted (many different abilities)? • To what extent do genetics and environmental influences affect IQ? • Is IQ important in predicting academic success and real-life success?

  3. Theories Of Intelligence • The Factor Analytic Approach • Factor analysis: STATISTICAL PROCEDURE FOR FINDING PATTERNS OF INTERCORRELATIONS;Answers questions like: "Do people who do well on tests of spatial ability also do well on vocabulary tests?" and "Do people who are poor on spatial ability have a low vocabulary?" If so, then there is a general ability that influences performance in both these areas.

  4. Factor analysis results • General factor (g) and specific factors (s) comprise intelligence (Spearman) • Thurstone proposed seven primary skills; de-emphasized g. • Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence

  5. Relationship of g and specific abilities

  6. Verbal meaning Thurman’s seven primary skills of intelligence Perceptual speed Reasoning Number Rote memory Word fluency Spatial visualization

  7. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Adapt, select, and shape to needs Ability to tailor one’s behavior to demands of context Encode, combine, compare information Exposure and practice IQ Information-processing skills Experience with a given task/situation

  8. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory • 1.) Information Processing Skills: Sternberg emphasizes the cognitive processing skills underlying intelligence. These skills used abilities such as encoding ability, attention, memory, and metacognition (e.g., what you know about memory strategies), (Covered in Chapter 9). • 2.) Experience: Intelligence involves the ability to bring together previous experiences to solve novel problems. The more the problem directly resembles something you have previously learned, the less related it is to intelligence. "Teaching for the test" is an attempt to make IQ less important. • 3.) Context: Intelligent people are able to adjust the way they solve problems and process information depending on context--for example, being able to transfer skills learned in one context to a new context. An intelligent person would be able to transfer research skills formed as a psychology major to a job as a stock broker.

  9. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory • Sternberg attempts to de-emphasize the practical importance of traditional IQ tests. (This is quite the opposite of the article by Linda Gottfredson who shows the power of general intelligence (g) to predict success in life. See the link at the beginning of this file.) • Sternberg's successful intelligence is "the ability to fit into, mold and choose environments that best fulfill the demands of one's society and one's own needs and desires." It includes analytical, creative and practical abilities.

  10. Sternberg’s Successful intelligence Three abilities to meet one’s own goals • Analytic: Analytical abilities are the skills tested in traditional IQ tests and may be assumed to basically reflect general intelligence. • Creative: the ability to address new ways of addressing issues and problems; artistic creativity is not correlated with general intelligence. • Practical: Practical abilities often involve tacit knowledge--practical knowledge needed to do a job; e.g., a mechanic's knowledge of socket wrenches.

  11. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Intrapersonal Musical naturalist Linguistic Logical- mathematical Bodily- kinesthetic Spatial Interpersonal

  12. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences 1.) Linguistic: Sensitivity to word meanings; mastery of syntax. Poet 2.) Logico-Mathematical: Understanding of objects, symbols, and actions that can be performed on them. ability to operate in the abstract. Mathemetician, scientist 3.) Spatial: Accurate perception of visual world; ability to transform perceptions and mentally re-create visual experience; artist, engineer. The above three intelligences are specific abilities in the hierarchical model of general intelligence (g).

  13. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences • 4.) Musical: Sensitivity to musical tones and phrases; ability to combine musical ideas. Musician, composer • 5.) Bodily kinesthetic: Skilled and graceful use of one's body for expressive, or goal-directed purposes;dancer, athlete • 6.) Intrapersonal: Access to one's own feeling life; Novelest, psychotherapist

  14. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences • 7.) Interpersonal: Ability to notice and distinguish among others' moods, temperaments, motives & intentions; Political or religious leader • 8.) Naturalistic: Insight into the natural world; ability to identify life forms; biologist, naturalist. • 9.) Spirituality or existential intelligence: Guru? • 4-9 not well studied.

  15. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences • Each type of intelligence has its own developmental timetable and is guided by its own unique forms of perception, learning, and memory. • Each intelligence is an adaptation in the evolutionary sense: • It is designed by natural selection to perform a certain specific function. It deals with a specific kind of information as input and has specific types of outputs. • For example, musical intelligence works on specific types of input (rhythms, harmonies) and results in specific types of output (symphonies, Broadway musicals). • This is not the case with general intelligence where people high on g are good at a whole range of cognitive tasks. • These intelligences are examples of the sorts of cognitive adaptations proposed by evolutionary psychologists; see pp. 21-22. • Each intelligence can give rise to precocious geniuses, such as Mozart, who develop extraordinary abilities at a very early age. Idiot savants, such as people who can multiply large numbers but are deficient in everything else, also support the theory; e.g., the autistic person in Rain Man.

  16. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences • Some of these abilities are at the second level under g in the hierarchical model of intelligence (see above): spatial, numerical, social/verbal, logic/analysis, causal. • This implies that the theory of multiple intelligences is consistent with the hierarchical model that includes general intelligence. • Bodily-kinesthetic and some others are not related to general intelligence. • Criticism: There are no standard assessment techniques.

  17. The Traditional Approach: Testing Intelligence • Intelligence quotient (IQ): index of performance on standardized tests • Can change over life span: • In general, information processing ability (Fluid Intelligence, Gf) peaks around age 30. • But general knowledge and information (crystalized intelligence, Gc) increases until old age.

  18. The Traditional Approach: Testing Intelligence • Processes of intelligence: Mental and neurophysiological processes influencing intelligence • Products of intelligence: Skills and abilities of people of varying intelligence.

  19. The Traditional Approach: Testing Intelligence • Intelligence quotient (IQ): index of performance on standardized tests • Can change over life span • Results can only infer capacity • Processes of intelligence: Mental and neurophysiological processes influencing intelligence • Products of intelligence: Skills and abilities of people of varying intelligence. • Primary purposes of intelligence testing • Predict academic and job performance • Assess general adjustment and health

  20. The Traditional Approach: The Fagen Test of Infant Intelligence • The Fagen Test focuses on infant's selective attention to novelty.Example: If a red diamond shape is followed by a green diamond and a green square, the baby will look at the green square because it has already processed the diamond shape and is more interested in the novelty. • Infant is presented with a photo of a face. The photo is then paired with another face for two 5-second periods with the order reversed.

  21. The Traditional Approach: The Fagen Test of Infant Intelligence • The Fagen Test focuses on infant's selective attention to novelty.Example: If a red diamond shape is followed by a green diamond and a green square, the baby will look at the green square because it has already processed the diamond shape and is more interested in the novelty. • Infant is presented with a photo of a face. The photo is then paired with another face for two 5-second periods with the order reversed. • The score is the total time spent looking at the novel photograph. This involves: • HABITUATION: Lessening of interest with repeated presentations • RECOVERY: the ability to recognize a new stimulus as novel and to direct attention to it in preference to a familiar stimulus.

  22. The Traditional Approach: The Fagen Test of Infant Intelligence • The test is used to screen children at risk for very low IQ. • Successfully identified 85% of children with low IQ. • Scores at 7 months moderately predicted IQ at age 3 and age 5.

  23. The Traditional Approach: The Fagen Test of Infant Intelligence Rose & Feldman: Correlations of 0.3 to 0.4 between IQ in middle childhood (age 11) and two measures in 7 month-old infants: VISUAL REGOGNITION MEMORY: Same as the Fagen procedure. CROSS-MODAL TRANSFER: Babies allowed to manipulate object without seeing it. Babies then shown pictures of the object and another object.

  24. The Traditional Approach: The Fagen Test of Infant Intelligence Rose & Feldman: Correlations of 0.3 to 0.4 between IQ in middle childhood (age 11) and two measures in 7 month-old infants: VISUAL REGOGNITION MEMORY: Same as the Fagen procedure. CROSS-MODAL TRANSFER: Babies allowed to manipulate object without seeing it. Babies then shown pictures of the object and another object.

  25. The Traditional Approach: The Fagen Test of Infant Intelligence For both visual recognition memory and cross-modal transfer, time spent looking at the novel object is correlated with IQ at age 11. The tests at age 11 that were most highly correlated with infant scores were: • SPEED OF PROCESSING. Speed of processing is a critical skill related to intelligence, as noted in the Gottfredson article. • INHIBITIONis also important: In order to pay attention to the novel stimulus, the baby must be able to inhibit the tendency to pay attention to the familiar stimulus.

  26. The Traditional Approach: The Fagen Test of Infant Intelligence THE BOTTOM LINE: SPEED OF PROCESSING AND INHIBITORY ABILITY ARE TWO CRITICAL ABILITIES UNDERLYING INTELLIGENCE. Another ability underlying g is working memory: The biggest contributor to individual differences in IQ is differences in the ability to hold information in conscious awareness. Assessed by backward digit-span test: 936709364

  27. The Traditional Approach: The Stanford-Binet Test • Used in schools and health settings • Has array of intellectual tasks • Age-related changes in learning built in • Devised mental age IQ = MA x 100 CA • If a 10-year-old child has a mental age of the average 12-year-old, his IQ is 12/10 * 100 = 120.If a 10-year-old child has a mental age of the average 8-year-old, his IQ is 8/10 8 100 = 80.

  28. Stanford-Binet Test: Relationship of g and specific abilities

  29. The Stanford-Binet Test • Originated in early 1900s by Binet and Simon as a means of placing children in appropriate tracks in school--basically a project of finding questions that discriminated among children and successfully predicted school performance (grades, teachers' opinions). They didn't have a theory. • The point was to find items that discriminated among children as follows: • The items of the test were retained only if they were useful in sorting children by age. E.g., an item would be retained if it was passed by 40% of 5-year olds, 60% of 6-year-olds, and 80% of 7-year-olds. • Mental age is an index of child's performance level compared to the average for children of the same age.

  30. The Traditional Approach: Testing Intelligence • Other IQ tests: • The Wechsler Scales • Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) • Separate verbal and performance scores

  31. The Traditional Approach: The Wechsler Scales • The Wechsler Scales: Separate verbal and performance scores • Verbal: General information, arithmetic, similarities between words, digit span • Performance: Picture completion, Picture arrangement, Reproducing Block designs, assemble jigsaw puzzle

  32. The Traditional Approach: The Wechsler Scales • Wechsler introduced the deviation IQ. in which IQ is measured in terms of standard deviations from the mean of children the same age. • This results in the familiar Bell Curve. Average IQ is 100.An IQ of 115 is 1 Standard Deviation above the mean, 130 is 2 standard deviations above the mean.

  33. WISC-IV Arithmetic Similarities Letter-number sequencing Vocabulary Picture completion Information Comprehension Cancellation Word Reasoning Block Design Picture concepts Digit span Matrix reasoning

  34. The Traditional Approach: Constructing Measures of Intelligence • Psychometrician: test constructor • Development of norms: Values that describe the typical test performance of a specific group of people. Tests are normed for groups having a characteristic such as ageor nationality in common. • Standardization: The process by which test constructors ensure that testing procedures, instructions, and scoring are identical, or as nearly identical as possible, on every testing occasion.

  35. The Traditional Approach: Constructing Measures of Intelligence • Validity and Reliability • Validity: THE ACCURACY WITH WHICH A MEASURING INSTRUMENT ASSESSES THE ATTRIBUTE THAT IT IS DESIGNED TO MEASURECORRELATED WITH MEASURES OF SCHOOL PERFORMANCE: • TEACHERS' EVALUATIONS, GRADES; • the correlations typically are moderate: 0.5 < r < 0.7; • GOTTFREDSON ARTICLE: THERE ARE A LOT OF OTHER REAL-WORLD CORRELATES OF IQ. • Reliability:THE CONSISTENCY OR REPEATABILITY OF AMEASURING INSTRUMENT

  36. The Traditional Approach: Constructing Measures of Intelligence • IQ TESTS MAY NOT TAP SKILLS IMPORTANT IN OTHER CULTURES (ACT AS A SUCCESSFUL URBAN CANDY VENDOR IN BRAZIL) OR MANY SKILLS VALUED IN OUR CULTURE: conscientiousness, athletic ability, and sociability. • Conscientiousness is the other trait besides IQ that is important for predicting school success and job success.

  37. The Traditional Approach: Testing Intelligence • Stability of Measured Intelligence • Longitudinal studies • STABILITY DECREASES WITH AGE INTERVAL: longer intervals show lower stability. • 2.) STABILITY HIGHER FOR SIMILAR LENGTH INTERVAL AT LATER AGES; there is more stability for a two-year interval from age 12-14 than from age 4-6. • Correlation of .7 between age 8 and 18. • The ages of 6 and 10 seem to be ages when change in IQ is most likely. Age 6 is when children are undergoing changes that allow them to think more abstractly and conceptually. This is the age when, in Piaget's theory, children go from the Pre-operational to the Concrete Operational Stage. Age 10??

  38. Flynn Effect • FLYNN EFFECT: IQ has been increasing—about 15 points between 1932 and 1978. • Not clear why this is: Better nutrition is a strong possibility. (Recall the cohort effects on age of menarche in Chapter 6.) • The textbook comments that "Whether gains were larger in certain groups, such as those with lower ability levels, and whether they can be observed in different generations of the same families, remains unknown."

  39. Why Do People Differ In Measured Intelligence?: Genetics and Intelligence • Responsible estimates of 40% to 80% of the variation in IQ is because people have different genes • The degree of genetic influence (=heritability) increases as children get older. Jensen argues that the 80% estimate would apply to intelligence in later adulthood, while in childhood only about 40% of the differences among children are due to genetic differences. • Stephen Ceci: Less than 40%. • All agree that environmental differences have an effect; environmental differences may be social (family, peers, school) or non-social (nutrition, pollutants, diseases). • The fact that a trait is caused by genes does not mean that it can't be influenced by the environment. Example: Blindness, deafness, Pheylketonuria (PKU).

  40. Heritability • HERITABILITY IS A MEASURE OF THE PROPORTION OF VARIATION FOR A GIVEN TRAIT, SUCH AS INTELLIGENCE, THAT IS CAUSED BY GENETIC VARIATION. • A HERITABILITY OF 1.00 WOULD MEAN THAT ALL THE VARIATION IN INTELLIGENCE WAS THE RESULT OF GENETIC VARIATION. (NONE OF THE VARIATION COMES FROM REARING IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS.) • A HERITABILITY OF 0.00 WOULD MEAN THAT NONE OF THE VARIATION IN INTELLIGENCE WAS DUE TO GENETIC VARIATION. (ALL THE VARIATION COMES FROM REARING IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS.)

  41. Heritability • Estimates of heritability apply to the entire population studied; • Estimates of heritability are averages, and they do not apply to particular people.Can't say: He has a heritability of .6 for IQ.Can say: For a random sample of the Long Beach Public Schools, the heritability of IQ is .6. • This would be compatible with some children's IQ being strongly influenced by the environment and other children's IQ not being influenced by the environment. • The heritability estimate is an average of all the influences for the entire sample

  42. Why Do People Differ In Measured Intelligence?: Genetic Views • Associative learning (Level I learning): short-term memory, rote learning, simple associative skills. Example: Child recalls list of familiar objects. • Cognitive learning (Level II learning): abstract thinking, symbolic processes, using language in problem solving. • Example: What is the next number in the following series?2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 17 ... • How are an apple and a banana alike? • Jensen: Only tasks involving cognitive learning (Level II learning) predict school performance; these are the skills that tap intelligence and differentiate high IQ people from low IQ people.

  43. Why Do People Differ In Measured Intelligence? • Heritability (degree of genetic influence) depends on the sample being studied. (p. 429): • Kagan (1969): In countries with high levels of nutrition and health care, most of the variation in height is because people have different genes. • But in countries where there are vast differences in nutrition and health care,  most of the variation in height is because people live in different environments. • Therefore, you cannot suppose that the same estimate of the heritability of height would apply to the two groups.

  44. Why Do People Differ In Measured Intelligence? • Heritability (degree of genetic influence) depends on the sample being studied. (p. 429): • Another example: • 1606: 400 YEARS AGO, ONLY RICH PEOPLE ATE WELL.RESULT: MOST OF THE PHENOTYPIC VARIATION IN HEIGHT WASTHE RESULT OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIATION.IN SOME COUNTRIES THIS CONTINUES TO BE THE CASE. • 2006: IN THE US, ALMOST EVERYONE EATS ENOUGH TO ACHIEVE THEIR MAXIMUM HEIGHTRESULT: MOST OF THE PHENOTYPIC VARIATION IN HEIGHT IS THE RESULT OF GENETIC VARIATION. • BASICALLY THE IDEA IS THAT IF YOU GET RID OF ALL THE ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCES OF VARIATION, THE REST OF THE VARIATION IS GOING TO BE THE RESULT OF GENETIC VARIATION.

  45. Environmental variation has most effect in poor environments, especially abusive environments ABUSIVE VERSUS NORMAL ENVIRONMENTS   IQ     __________|___________________|_____ ABUSIVE           NORMAL             ENRICHED Gain from Better Normal E Bad E’s have Accelerating Negative effects On IQ

  46. Environmental variation has most effect in poor environments, especially abusive environments • ABUSIVE VERSUS NORMAL ENVIRONMENTS • Environmental influences are highest on the left hand side of this graph. • If you had a sample of children who came from normal environments, the degree of genetic influence would be relatively high, but if you had a sample from abusive environments or even perhaps the low end of normal environments, there would be more evidence for environmental influence. • The empirical data supporting this is a bit mixed, but it is certainly true that the degree of genetic influence is less if you are studying only abused children. • The low end of normal environments in the US would be working class people who send their kids to school but are not well educated and are not much interested or able to provide a lot of intellectual stimulation to their children. • The high end of normal would be yuppie-type, well educated parents who desperately try to get their kids into the best schools, hire tutors, and take them on trips the local art museum.) 

  47. Why Do People Differ In Measured Intelligence? • Environmental factors affecting IQ • Pregnancy and birth problems: Prenatal malnutrition, maternal disease (e.g., AIDS); These characteristics are considered congenital--that is, they are acquired either in utero or shortly after birth; they are not inherited.

  48. Why Do People Differ In Measured Intelligence? • Environmental factors affecting IQ • The family: IQ correlated with family environments that are "emotionally and verbally responsive to their children, provide appropriate play and reading materials, encourage children in school, etc. • THESE FINDINGS COULD BE DUE TO PASSIVE GENOTYPE-ENVIRONMENT CORRELATIONS. Parent Genes Env. Child

  49. Why Do People Differ In Measured Intelligence? • Environmental factors affecting IQ • Schools and Peer Groups: Ceci: • Lack of formal education or "dropping out" of school associated with DECLINES in IQ. • IQ declines during summer vacation • Children whose birthdays barely qualify them for school entry have higher IQs.

  50. Why Do People Differ In Measured Intelligence? • Environmental factors affecting IQ • Peer culture: Compared to European-American children, peer groups of Asian Americans supported each others' academic pursuits and participated in education-related activities such as studying together. They were less involved in dating and general socializing. Linked with higher achievement. • African-Americans: Peer groups express anti-academic attitudes, ridiculing and isolating students who try to succeed at school. Children may try to fit in by not taking school seriously. • Community: Isolated rural areas tend to be associated with lower IQ.