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CHAPTER 21

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CHAPTER 21

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  1. CHAPTER 21 THE TWENTIES 1920-1929

  2. SECTION 1 A REPUBLICAN DECADE

  3. I. Analyze the causes and effects of the red scare and the labor strikes of 1919. • A. The Red Scare • 1. Russian Revolution • a. The “Reds” – Bolsheviks – Vladimir Lenin took control of farms, industries, land, and transportation. • b. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) • c. Communism • 1. Government owned all land and property • 2. Single political party • 3. No individual rights • 4. Government vowed to spread communism • d. Red Scare – intense fear the communism would undermine American society

  4. I. Analyze the causes and effects of the red scare and the labor strikes of 1919. • A. The Red Scare • 2. Schenck vs. U.S. a. Clear and present danger • 3. Palmer Raid • a. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer • b. Arrest suspected people trying to overthrow the government • c. Included Communists, Socialists, anarchists • 4. Sacco and Vanzetti • a. Robbery, killing of a guard and paymaster of a shoe factory • b. Sacco, shoemaker and Vanzetti, fish peddler – Italian immigrants • c. Case drew international attention and controversy • d. Both found guilty, appealed and lost, electrocuted

  5. I. Analyze the causes and effects of the red scare and the labor strikes of 1919. • B. Labor Strikes • 1. Boston Police Strike • a. Strike over pay raise/union activity • b. Governor Calvin Coolidge 1. public safety 2. called out state guard • 2. Steel and Coal Strikes • a. Americans blamed strikes on communist supporters • b. Corporations’ private police killed 18 strikers and beat hundreds • c. Strike activity declined in 1920s

  6. II. Describe key features of the Republican administrations of the 1920s. • A. Republican party dominated all three branches of government. • 1. Presidents (1921-1933) Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover • 2. Congress – majority Republicans • 3. Supreme Court – Chief Justice William Howard Taft (former Republican President) • B. United in basic goals and ideals • 1. Favored business • 2. Social stability to promote economic growth

  7. III. Compare the Harding and Coolidge presidencies. • A. Warren G. Harding (1921-1923) • 1. Promised “normalcy” • 2. Cabinet decisions – questionable selections • 3. Isolationism – policy of avoiding political or economic alliances with foreign countries. • 4. Disarmament – program in which nations voluntarily give up their weapons. • 5. Limiting immigration – move nativists - anti-immigrate • a. Loyalty • b. Religious differences • c. Urban slums and corruption • d. Jobs • e. Political ideas

  8. III. Compare the Harding and Coolidge presidencies. • A. Warren G. Harding (1921-1923) • 6. Teapot Dome Scandal • a. Worst Harding scandal • b. Secretary of Interior Albert B. Fall • c. Oil rights on government fields in exchange for bribe $300,000.00 • d. Elk Hills, CA and Teapot Dome, WY • e. Harding died August 2, 1923 – heart problems

  9. III. Compare the Harding and Coolidge presidencies. • B. Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929) • 1. Vice President of Harding – oath given by father • 2. Former Governor of Massachusetts – No role in scandals • 3. Laissez-Faire - government was not to interfere with business • 4. Isolationism • 5. Kellogg-Briand Pact – not to use the threat of war

  10. SECTION 2 A Business Boom

  11. I. Describe how the growth of a consumer economy changed American life. • A. Consumer Economy • 1. Economy that depends on a large amount of buying by consumers –individuals who use products • 2. Buying on credit • a. Installment plan – partial payments at set intervals over a period of time ***plus interest*** • 3. Electric power – increased sales of a variety of household electrical appliances. • 4. New products – ovens, toasters, washing machines, vacuums

  12. II. Explain how Henry Ford made automobiles affordable for average Americans. • A. Ford and the “Model T” • 1. Henry Ford – Detroit Michigan • 2. Horseless carriage • B. Ford’s Assembly Line • 1. Produce more cars at prices people could afford • 2. Assembly line – manufacturing process in which each worker does one specialized task • 3. Ford made the product move – not the employee • 4. Interchangeable parts speeded production • 5. One “Model T” every 24 seconds • 6. Economics of Scale – increased production decreases costs • 7. Vertical consolidation – owned steel and rubber supplies

  13. II. Explain how Henry Ford made automobiles affordable for average Americans. • C. Complex Businessman • 1. $5.00 a day pay rate – which was a positive • 2. Fought unions • 3. Refused to consider tastes – painted every Ford black

  14. III. Explain why American businesses boomed in the 1920s. • A. Automobiles single biggest industry • B. Everything that it takes to make a car • C. Everything you can do with a car industries • 1. Travel • 2. Garages/mechanics • 3. Gas stations • 4. Delivery companies • D. Laissez-Faire supported business over government interference

  15. SECTION 3 Society in the 1920s

  16. I. Describe changes in women’s attitudes and roles in society during the 1920s. • A. Flapper • 1. New type of women – young, rebellious, fun loving, FASHION • 2. Break from the past – morals and manners • 3. Short – hair and cloths • 4. Smoking and drinking in public • B. Women Working and Voting • 1. Convenience affected style • 2. Two female governors by 1924 • 3. Status of women changed very little during 1920s

  17. II. Analyze the causes for population changes in American cities and suburbs. • A. Demographics – statistics used to describe population. • B. African Americans in the North • 1. Great Migration to the North • a. Jobs – industrial boom • b. Escape Jim Crow laws of segregation • c. No land forced population to city

  18. II. Analyze the causes for population changes in American cities and suburbs. • C. Other migration • 1. Immigrants to fill low-paying jobs • 2. Europe, now Mexico and Canada • 3. Barrio – Spanish speaking neighborhoods • D. Growth of the Suburbs • 1. Quick access to the city – buses • 2. Cities built transportation systems

  19. III. Identify some of the heroes of the 1920s and explain their popularity. • A. Lucky Lindy • 1. Charles Lindbergh – Spirit of St. Louis • 2. Won a race from New York to Paris across the Atlantic Ocean • B. Amelia Earhart • 1. Female pilot who disappeared attempting to fly around the world • C. Heroes of Sports – Good Old Days • 1. George Herman “Babe” Ruth - baseball • 2. Jack Dempsey – heavyweight boxer • 3. Gertrude Ederle – female Olympic swimmer

  20. SECTION 4 Mass Media and The Jazz Age

  21. I. Analyze the impact of the growth of the nation’s mass media. • A. Mass Media – print and broadcast methods of communicating information to large numbers of people. • B. Mass Media produced a national culture • 1. Movies • a. Motion pictures – silent • b. Introduction of sound in 1927 – talkies • 2. Newspapers • a. Newspaper chains (many papers owned by one group) • b. William Randolph Hurst owned papers in 20 cities • 3. Radios • a. First radio station – Pittsburg KDKA • b. Radio network – NBC

  22. II. Identify some of the major figures of the Jazz Age and other artistic figures of the 1920s. • A. Jazz Age 1920s (Jazz – influenced by ragtime and blues) • 1. Brought to North by Southern African Americans • 2. Jazz Clubs in Harlem New York, ex. Cotton Club – Bessie Smith • B. Duke Ellington • 1. One of the most celebrated Jazz musician • 2. Pianist, composer, bandleader • C. Other Artists • 1. Jazz poetry, jazz painting, jazz literature • 2. Sinclair Lewis wrote about small towns, medical field, and dishonest ministers

  23. III. Show how the Lost Generation and the Harlem Renaissance influenced American culture. • A. Lost Generation • 1. Lost in a greedy, materialistic world, which lacked moral values. • 2. Settled in Greenwich Village area of New York • 3. Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald The Great Gatsby • 4. Expatriates – people who move outside U.S. (ex. Paris, France) • B. Harlem Renaissance • 1. Harlem, NY became home of African American literary movement • 2. James Weldon Johnson – Sec. of NAACP writer and politician • 3. Zora Neale Hurst - Their Eyes Were Watching God • 4. Langston Hughes – poet and wrote short stories

  24. SECTION 5 Cultural Conflicts

  25. I. Analyze the effects of Prohibition. • A. 18th Amendment – Prohibition of all alcohol beverages • B. Obeying the law sharpened the difference between urban and rural moral values. • C. Bootlegging – supplier of illegal alcohol • 1. Stills and illegal imports • 2. Speakeasies – place that served alcohol illegally • D. Organized Crime • 1. Gambling and prostitution • 2. Racketeering – pay for protection • E. Al Capone “Scarface”, Chicago, IL versus J. Edgar Hoover FBI

  26. II. Summarize the main issue in the Scopes Trial. • A. Fundamentalism • 1. Set of beliefs held by religious traditionalists. • B. Evolution and the Scopes Trial • 1. Scopes Trial • a. Case about the teaching of evolution in schools • b. William Jennings Bryan – fundamentalist – prosecutor • c. Clarence Darrow – science – defense • d. Fundamentalism lost momentum

  27. III. Explain why an increase in racial tensions occurred following World War I. • A. Violence against African Americans • 1. Chicago Riots of 1919 – overcrowded neighborhoods – tension • B. Revival of the Klan • 1. No longer a southern organization – restarted in Indiana • 2. Targeted African Americans, Catholics, Jews, and immigrants • C. Fighting Discrimination • 1. NAACP a. Anti-lynching laws b. Suffrage – right to vote improvements • D. Garvey Movement • 1. Marcus Garvey a native Jamaican • 2. Urged a “return to Africa” “Motherland”