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Chapter 4

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Chapter 4

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  1. Chapter 4 Spain Builds an Empire

  2. Christopher Columbus, an Italian explorer wanted to find what on his first expedition? a shorter route to the Indies

  3. 2. Expedition- a journey made for a special purpose.

  4. 3. Columbus made more voyages to the West Indies because 1. He delivered people and animals to the new land. 2. The Spanish wanted the riches of the land. 3. Spain wanted him to start a colony in West Indies.

  5. 4. Colony- settlement far from the country that rules it.

  6. 5. Columbian Exchange- movement of people, animals, plants, diseases, and ways of life between the Eastern Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere.

  7. 6. The Columbian Exchange made all of the following happen 1. Many Indians died from overwork and the diseases brought over by the Europeans. 2. Europeans brought horses, pigs, sheep, and cattle to the Western Hemisphere. 3. Europeans enjoyed new foods from the Americas, such as beans, cocoa, potatoes, tomatoes, and corn.

  8. 7. How did Columbus’s voyages impact the Americas? showed the Europeans the way to the Americas

  9. 8. Latitude- the imaginary lines that run in an east-west direction.

  10. 9. Longitude- the imaginary lines that run in a north-south direction.

  11. 10. Meridians- lines of longitude.

  12. 11. Grid- a set of crossing lines.

  13. 12. Prime Meridian- the line of longitude marked 0 degrees.

  14. 13. How was Cortes able to defeat the Aztecs? because of metal armor, muskets, horses, and allies

  15. 14. Conquistador- a Spanish conqueror.

  16. 15. Ally- a friend who will help in a fight.

  17. 16. Conquest- the capture or taking of something by force.

  18. 17. Convert- to change.

  19. 18. Colonist- a person who lives in a colony.

  20. 19. Pizarro conquered the Incan Empire after Cortes conquered the Aztecs.

  21. 20. Peru was found after the defeat of the Incan Empire.

  22. 21. Why did Cabeza de Vaca travel the American Southwest? in Spain’s search for gold

  23. 22. Coronado continued the search for Cibola after Esteban’s death, which is now known as New Mexico.

  24. 23. Society- a group of people forming a community.

  25. 24. Plantation- a large farm with workers who live on the land.

  26. 25. List New Spain’s colonial society groups from most to least powerful. 1. Peninsulares 2. Creoles 3. Mestizos 4. Indians and Africans

  27. 26. What was an Indian’s life like that lived on an encomienda? Indian’s often worked without pay and were expected to become Christians.

  28. 27. How did the Spanish landowners become rich? They had slaves.

  29. 28. Encomienda- a large piece of land, usually given to its owners by the King of Spain.

  30. 29. Missionary- a person who teaches his or her religion to others who have different beliefs.

  31. 30. Mission- a religious settlement where missionaries live and work.

  32. 31. What did La Casa want to end? slavery

  33. 32. What sequence of events led to the Columbian Exchange? (essay 4 lines) Spain sent Columbus on a westward expedition on which he discovered the Americas. On later expeditions, he brought settlers, animals, and other supplies. Spain started the colony of New Spain in the Americas.

  34. 33. How did having Indian allies help Cortes conquer the Aztecs? (essay 2 lines) Allies helped the Spanish conquistadors communicate and obtain food, shelter, supplies, and additional forces to conquer the Aztecs.

  35. 34. Why do archaeologists today find evidence of the ancient Aztec capital right in the center of Mexico City? (essay 2 lines) Mexico City was built on the ruins Tenochtitian, the former Aztec capital.

  36. 35. The Spanish explorers conquered Indian Empires to gain land and riches. How do you think the Aztec and Incan people may have felt about these events? (essay 2 lines) Feared an end to their ways of life and their safety. They saw opportunities to advance and become part of the new culture taking over their land.

  37. 36. What was colonial society like in New Spain? (essay 3 lines) The society in New Spain was organized by ancestry. Those coming from Spain had the greatest status and power. Those who had no Spanish blood, like the Indians and Africans, help the lowest position.

  38. 37. How did Spain become one of the most powerful countries in the world in the 1600s? (essay 3 lines) Spain established colonies and built profitable settlements. The profits from the plantations and mines in the colonies helped make Spain one of the richest and most powerful countries in the world.