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Exploitation: Predation, Herbivory, Parasitism, and Disease PowerPoint Presentation
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Exploitation: Predation, Herbivory, Parasitism, and Disease

Exploitation: Predation, Herbivory, Parasitism, and Disease

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Exploitation: Predation, Herbivory, Parasitism, and Disease

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  1. Exploitation: Predation, Herbivory, Parasitism, and Disease Chapter 14

  2. Introduction • _________________: Interaction between populations that enhances fitness of one individual while reducing fitness of the exploited individual. • ___________ is an insect larva that consumes the host.

  3. Parasites That Alter Host Behavior • Spring-Headed Worm (Acanthocephalans) changes behavior of amphipods in ways that make it more likely … • Infected amphipods swim toward light, which is usually indicative of shallow water, and thus …

  4. Parasites That Alter Host Behavior

  5. Parasites That Alter Host Behavior

  6. Parasites That Alter Host Behavior • Rust fungus Puccinia monoica manipulates growth of host mustard plants (Arabis spp.). • Puccinia infects Arabis rosettes and invades actively dividing ________________________. • Rosettes rapidly elongate and become topped by a cluster of bright yellow leaves. • Pseudo-flowers are fungal structures including sugar-containing spermatial fluids. • Attract pollenators

  7. Entangling Exploitation with Competition • Park found the presence/absence of a protozoan parasite (Adeline tribolii) influences competition in flour beetles (Tribolium). • Adelina lives as an intercellular parasite. • Reduces density of T. castaneum but has little effect on T. confusum. • T. castaneum is usually the strongest competitor, but with the presence of Adelina, T. confusum becomes strongest competitor.

  8. Exploitation and Abundance • Introduced Cactus and Herbivorous Moth • Mid 1800’s:prickly pear cactus Opuntia stricta was introduced to Australia. • Established populations in the wild. • Government asked for assistance in control. • Moth Cactoblastis cactorum found to be effective predator. • Reduced by 3 orders of magnitude in 2 years.

  9. Exploitation and Abundance

  10. Cycles of Abundance in Snowshoe Hares and Their Predators • Snowshoe Hares (Lepus americanus) and Lynx (Lynx canadensis). • Extensive trapping records. • Elton proposed abundance cycles driven by variation in solar radiation. • Keith suggested overpopulation theories: • Decimation by … • ____________________________ at high density. • _____________ due to reduced food.

  11. Population Fluctuations

  12. Snowshoe Hares - Role of Food Supply • Live in boreal forests dominated by conifers. • Dense growth of understory shrubs. • In winter, browse on buds and stems of shrubs and saplings such as aspen and spruce. • One population reduced food biomass from 530 kg/ha in late Nov. to 160 kg/ha in late March. • Shoots produced after heavy browsing can increase levels of plant chemical defenses. • Reducing usable food supplies.

  13. Snowshoe Hares - Role of Predators • Lynx (Classic specialist predator) • Coyotes may also play a large role. • _______________ can account for 60-98% of mortality during peak densities. • Complementary: • Hare populations increase, causing food supplies to decrease. Starvation and weight loss may lead to increased predation, all of which decrease hare populations.

  14. Population Cycles in Mathematical and Laboratory Models • Lotka Volterra assumes host population grows exponentially, and population size is limited by parasites, pathogens, and predators: dNh/dt = rhNh – pNhNp • rhNh = Exponential growth by host population. • Opposed by: • P = • Nh = • Np =

  15. Model Behavior • Host exponential growth often opposed by _________________. • Host reproduction immediately translated into … • Increased predation = • More predators = • Larger predator population eventually reduces host population, in turn reducing …

  16. Refuges • To persist in the face of exploitation, hosts and prey need … • Gause attempted to produce population cycles with P. caudatum and Didinium nasutum. • Didinium quickly consumed all Paramecium and went extinct. (Both populations extinct) • Added sediment for Paramecium refuge. • Few Paramecium survived after Didinium extinction.

  17. Other kinds of Refuge?

  18. Predator Satiation by Periodical Cicadas • Periodical cicadas Magicicada spp. emerge as adults every 13-17 years. • Densities can approach 4x106 ind / ha. • Williams estimated 1,063,000 cicadas emerged from 16 ha study site. • 50% emerged during four consecutive nights. • Losses to birds was only 15% of production.

  19. Protection in Numbers • Predator’s response to increased prey density: Prey consumed x Predators = Prey Consumed • Wide variety of organisms employ … • Prey can reduce…

  20. Size As A Refuge • If large individuals are ignored by predators, then .... • Peckarsky observed mayflies (Family Ephenerellidae) making themselves look larger in the face of foraging stoneflies. • In terms of optimal foraging theory…