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POLITICAL PARTIES & THE LATIN AMERICAN POLITY PowerPoint Presentation
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POLITICAL PARTIES & THE LATIN AMERICAN POLITY

POLITICAL PARTIES & THE LATIN AMERICAN POLITY

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POLITICAL PARTIES & THE LATIN AMERICAN POLITY

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  1. POLITICAL PARTIES & THE LATIN AMERICAN POLITY

  2. INTEREST AGGREGATION or the Combining of Demands • An activity process • Backed by resources • Can be performed by • Individual or • group • Political party the dominant form

  3. INSTITUTIONAL GROUPS INTEREST AGGREGATION • Institutional groups with a history as aggregators of political interests • Religious denominations (especially Roman Catholic Church in Latin America) • Military organizations • Bureaucracy (Ministry of Public Works)

  4. Military: Second most important Aggregators of Political Interests in Latin America • Monopoly of coercive resources • Goals vary • Nationalistic development within global capitalism (Brazilian model 1964-85) • Social justice and revolutionary change (Peruvian model 1968-79) • Process of aggregating interests changes the military as an institution

  5. ASSOCIATIONAL GROUPS AS INTEREST AGGREGATORS • Composed of associations of institutions • Examples include : • Peasant confederations • Labor confederations • Middle class groups (civic associations) • Urban Poor (Bolivarian Circles in contemporary Venezuela)

  6. In Latin America • Political parties are the most important institutions involved in interest aggregation • Nineteenth century political parties founded by elite groups in competition with other factions of the traditional “big three” • Conservatives • Liberals

  7. Contemporary Latin America • Most contemporary political parties and party systems emerged following periods of military rule • Traditional Conservatives and Liberals destroyed • Exception: Colombia - 19th century Conservative and Liberal political parties continue to dominate the system of political parties

  8. Rise of Contemporary Political Parties in Latin America • Middle sectors in the Southern Cone gained visibility during first decade of Twentieth Century • Gave rise to reformist political parties • Radicals in Argentina & Chile • Colorados & Blancos in Uruguay • Some with international ties • Communist parties • Socialist parties

  9. Mexican Revolution 1917

  10. Revolution Led to establishment of Revolutionary Institutional Party (PRI) in 1928 • Mass based party with a revolutionary agenda • tempered with passage of time • Aspired to include all classes (polyclasista) • Control consolidated by Lázaro Cardenas • Ruled Mexico for more than 70 years (until 2000)

  11. Emergence of Contemporary Political Parties in Latin America: Center-Left Tradition I Haya de la Torre – APRA • Growth of the middle sectors throughout Western Hemisphere in 1920’s and 1930’s led to the founding of a new group of mass based political parties • APRA in Peru (Indo-America) • Most Focused on national concerns • PLN in Costa Rica • AD in Venezuela

  12. Emergence of Contemporary Political Parties in Latin America II. • Christian Democratic parties appeared in 1930’s and 1940’s • Varying degrees of clerical orientation • Led by pro-clerical middle class • Greatest successes in Venezuela, Chile & Costa Rica

  13. Emergence of Contemporary Political Parties in Latin America III. • Nationalist parties based on strong personalities who established linkages to disadvantaged sectors • Peronism in 1940’s (Argentina) • Velasco Ibarra in 1940’s (Ecuador) • Chavismo in 1990’s (Venezuela) • Evita Peron addresses crowd of 2,000000

  14. Political Party Systems differfrom Political Parties • Political party systems include: • Constellation of individual political parties • Relationships among the political parties • Types of party systems (first cut) • Non-competitive • Competitive

  15. Party Systems Structured by Elections and Voting Procedures • Universal suffrage widespread by the end of the twentieth century • Voting often compulsory • Plural vs. proportional representation • Electoral turnout • Simultaneity of national and regional elections

  16. National and Regional Institutions of Government also Structure Party Systems • Strong national political institutions favor national party system • Single Member Districts vs. proportional representation • Decentralization opens way for regional political parties

  17. PARTY SYSTEMS CAN BE NON-COMPETITIVE • Mexican party system until 2000 • Argentine party system between 1946 – 1955 • Emerging Venezuelan party system of the Fifth Republic

  18. Competitive Party Systems: more than one political party has possibility of winning • Majoritarian • Multiparty • Attitudes toward regime • Consensual, • Conflictual • Consociational

  19. Political Parties in Government • Pass and implement legislation • Use of negotiations, bargaining, and competition • Form coalitions in order to govern • Some accountability expected in democracies

  20. Characteristics of Interest Aggregation by Political Parties In Latin America • Restrains and limits the impact of political culture • Alters (or exacerbates?) the amount of polarization • In comparison with dictatorial control aggregation by political parties tends to be supportive of • Freedom • Participation • Stability

  21. Trends in Political Party and Party System Evolution • More democracy? • Representative • Direct • Movement away from single party systems? • Decline of ideology? • Special case of Cuba, Venezuela, Bolivia